| Nurturing Your Dream Career in LawAll About CLATBlogs & Articles

Academic Hour Blogs & Articles

Important Questions for DU LLB 2019 : Lok Sabha - 2

Posted By: Admin on 24 MAY 2019

Important Questions from polity Based on Lok Sabha

  • The speaker of the Lok sabha is elected by
    • Ans. All members of Lok sabha
  • The “speaker’s vote” in the Lok sabha is called
    • Ans. Casting vote
  • Who is the Presiding office of the Lok sabha ?
    • Ans. Speaker & Deputy speaker
  • The chairman of which committee is generally from the opposition party
    • Ans. Public Accounts Committee
  • The public Accounts Committee submits its report to
    • Ans. The speaker of the Lok Sabha
  • Which committees exist only in the Lok Sabha not in Rajya Sabha
    • Ans.  a) Committee on Private Members Bill & resolution, b) Estimates Committees
  • Which committees is concerned with the regularity & economy of expenditure of Govt.
    • Ans. Public Accounts committees
  • Which committees is not created by the Speaker’s nomination of members
    • Ans. Committee on Public Undertaking
  • If  a member of parliament voluntarily acquires the citizenship of a foreign country …..
    • Ans. He will be disqualified from membership
  • When the annual Budget is not passed by the Lok Sabha
    • Ans. The prime minister submits the resignation of councils of Ministers
  • What is “Vote -on-account”
    • Ans. It only deals with the expenditure in Govt.’s budget
  • “Vote-on account” permits Union Govt. to —-
    • Ans. Withdraw money from Consolidate Fund of India for specific period
  • What is “Interim Budget”
    • Ans. It includes both expenditure & receipts
  • Who  are entitled to take part in the activities of Lok Sabha with out membership
    • Ans. a) The Comprotroler & auditor general of India, b) The attorney General of India, c) The solicitor General
  • No confidence Motion against the Union council of ministers can be initiated ……
    • Ans. In the Lok sabha only
  • At which stage general discussion on a bill takes places in the Lok sabha ?
    • Ans. During second reading
  • The chairman of Public Accounts Committee is appointed by
    • Ans. Speaker of Lok Sabha
  • Who presides over the joint sitting of the two houses ?
    • Ans. The speaker of the Lok sabha
  • Who calls the joint session of the two Houses of the parliament ?
    • Ans. The speaker of the Lok sabha
  • The speaker of the Lok sbha addresses his letter of resignation to the
    • Ans. Deputy speaker of the Lok sabha
  • Who presides over the Lok sabha when both the speaker’s & the deputy speaker’s offices fall vacant ?
    • Ans. The duties of the office of the speaker are performed by such member of the Lok Sabha as the president may appoint for the purpose . the person so appointed is known as the speaker preterm
  • Who is to certify that any bill is a money bill or not ?
    • Ans. Speaker of Lok sabha
  • Who has the final power to maintain order within the house of People ?
    • Ans. Speaker
  • After a  no confidence motion is admitted to the Lok sabha , who decides a date for the debate
    • Ans. Speaker of Lok sabha
  • Who forms the Advisory Committees of the Parliaments
    • Ans. Speaker of Lok sabha
  • The chairman of the following is designated as
    • Ans. Speaker
  • The function of the Pro-tem Speaker is to
    • Ans. Swearing Members
  • Who is the first speaker of Lok sabha
    • Ans. G V Mavlankar
  • Who was the first speaker to discard the official wig & presided over the House wearing the Gandhi Cap
    • Ans. G V Mavlankar
  • Longest serving speaker of lok sabha
    • Ans. Balram jakhar
  • Who is the first female speaker of Lok Sabha
    • Ans. Meira Kumar
  • Who was the first deputy speaker of Lok Sabha
    • Ans. M Ananthasayanam Ayyangar
  • Who is selected Anglo-Indian community in the Lok Sabha
    • Ans. President
  • The Lok sabha secretariat comes under the direct supervision of
    • Ans. Ministry  of Human affairs
  • The largest committee of Loksabha (Parliament) of India is
    • Ans. Estimate Committee
  • Which parliamentary Committees in India acts as “Watch dog” on departmental expenditure & irregularities ?
    • Ans. Public Account committee
  • When can the speaker exercise his right to vote in the house ?
    • Ans. Only in the event of equality of votes
  • The speaker may be removed …..
    • Ans. By a resolution of the house moved after 14 days clear notice & passed by majority of all the then members of the house
  • The speaker of the Lok sabha can be removed by
    • Ans. A resolution of the Lok Sabha passed by a majority of the members of the House
  • When a resolution for his removal is under consideration , the speaker……
    • Ans. Has a right to speak in the house even though he shall not preside
  • Who fixes the salaries & the allowances of the speaker of Lok Sabha
    • Ans. Parliament

  • Who presides over the Lok Sabha if neither the speaker nor the deputy Speaker is available ?
    • Ans. The senior most member of the Lok sabha
  • When the Lok sabha is dissolved , the speaker continues in office till a new…….
    • Ans. Speaker is elected when the new House meets
  • Who, according to the Anti -defection Act, is the final authority to decide whether a member of Lok Sabha has incurred disqualification due to defection ?
    • Ans. Speaker
  • Who presides over the Lok Sabha when the speaker is absent from the sitting of the house ?
    • Ans. Deputy speaker
  • Bills of which categories can be initiated only in Lok sabha
    • Ans. Money Bill
  • The member of the Lok sabha is elected by the
    • Ans. People
  • No Govt. Expenditure can be incurred in India except with the sanction of
    • Ans. The parliament
  • Which is properly elected house of the Indian parliament
    • Ans. Lok sabha
  • Union Budget is always presented first in
    • Ans. Lok sabha
  • Finance Bill of Indian Govt. is presened in ?
    • Ans. Lok sabha (Lower House)
  • The Union Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to
    • Ans. Lok Sabha
  • Which house is better placed with regard to control over the executive ?
    • Ans. Lok Sabha
  • Why is the Lok sabha called the popular chamber ?
    • Ans. The lok sabah is composed of representive of the people chosen by direct election on the basis of adult suffrage.That is why it is called the popular chamber

read full post...

Question Tag - Important for DU LLB Entrance

Posted By: Admin on 08 MAY 2019

Question Tag

Tag Question is a form of short question added after a sentence. Tag question is used to get the confirmation from the listeners. 

Auxiliary verb + not (if sentence is affirmative) + Pronoun of Subject?



1. We use Auxiliary Verbs to make a sentence Negative of Interrogative. So, To make a tag question we use Auxiliary Verbs . They are different in different tenses.

Tense - Auxiliary Verbs

Present Indefinite - Do/Does / don’t  /doesn’t

Past Indefinite - Did / didn’t

Future Indefinite - Shall/ Will / shan’t / won’t

Present Continuous - Am/ Is/ Are / aren’t  / isn’t

Past Continuous - Was/ Were / wasn’t  / weren’t

Future Continuous - Shall /  Will shan’t / won’t

Present Perfect - Have/ Has / haven’t  / hasn’t

Present Perfect - Had / hadn’t

Future Perfect - Shall / Will / shan’t  / won’t

2. We also use Modal Verbs as Auxiliary verbs. Some Modal Verbs are can, could, will, would, shall, should, need to, ought to, dare to,  etc.

3. Always a question is formed with the help of Auxiliary Verb. If the sentence is affirmative, Tag question is negative.

- I know nothing about this, do I?  (Present tense and negative so tag question is affirmative)

- You studied hard, didn’t you? (Past tense and affirmative, so tag question is negative)

4. We say ‘let us’ to express proposal but say let me, let him, let them to express request.

- Let us /Let’s do the work, shall we?  [Proposal]

- but, Let me /Let him /Let them do the work, will you? [Request]

5. When main verb is Have, Has, Need, you should use do/does as auxiliary verb in present tense and did in Past Tense.

- He has some books, doesn’t he?    (Has is the main verb in present tense) 

but, He has finished the task, hasn’t he?  (Has is the auxiliary verb in present perfect tense)

- He had some books, didn’t he?   (Had is the main verb in past tense)

but, He had finished the task, hadn’t he?  (Had is the auxiliary verb in past perfect tense)

- I need a pencil to write with, don’t I? (Need is the main verb)

- I need to wait for an hour, needn’t you? (Need is auxiliary verb)

6. If subject is plural, the pronoun of subject is always ‘They’

- The books are very interesting, aren’t  they?

7. When Subject is nobody, everybody, none, everyone, the pronoun can be ‘Anybody’ or  ‘They’

- Nobody loves a liar, do they?/ does anybody?

8. The words ‘seldom, rare, hardly, few, little, scarcely, no sooner are negative.  Then question tag should be affirmative.

There is no alternative to practice. So practice the following sentences yourselves. Please don’t forget to write a comment here. You may ask any question you want to know.

Tag question exercise

1.    Nothing is impossible.   ——–?

2.    I think everybody knows it. ——–?

3.    The idle always lag behind.  ——–?

4.    Let’s motivate them. ——–?

5.    Motivation seldom goes in vain. ——–?

6.    Congratulations, you have made an excellent result. . ——–?

7.    Thanks. But my parents and teachers also deserve the credit. ----?

8.    We ought to remain grateful them. ——–?

9.    You studied hard. ——–?

10.   It is our duty to study in a disciplined way. ——–?

11. Let us start our journey.  ——–?

12.  They used to play football in the afternoon. ——–?

13. Nobody should laugh at the blind.  ——–?

14. There is nothing for her to eat. ——–?

15.  Mina had better to stay at home. ——–?

16.  You aren’t doing the work. ——–?

17.  Somebody left there house yesterday. ——–?

18. What a beautiful day it is. ——–?

19.  A cat catches a mouse. ——–?

20. Bangladesh is our motherland. ——–?

21.  Something is burning. ——–?

22.  Rahim as well as his friends was present. ——–?

23.  He did it. ——–?

24.  I know nothing about him. ——–?

25.  Let’s arrange a class party. ——–?

26. The moon shines at night. ——–?

27.  Everybody loves flower. ——–?

28.  Nothing can satisfy him. ——–?

29.  He has few reasons for waiting. ——–?

30.  That was my pen. ——–?

31.  Nobody believes a liar. ——–?

32.  We have to study English. ——–?

33.  Let her solve the matter. ——–?

34. You had better leave now. ——–?

35.  We ought to love our motherland. ——–?

36.  Look at this paper. ——–?

37.  Let’s phone. ——–?

38.  It is a beautiful afternoon. ——–?

39.  Let’s go out for a walk. ——–?

40.  The police arrested him. ——–?

41.   Both are responsible. ——–?

42.  Let’s take an oath today. ——–?

43.  This is the right way to do it.——–?

44.  Life is very busy in the big cities. ——–?

45. We needed a change in thoughts. ——–?

46.  Let us make them realize it. ——–?

47. Man is a social being. ——–?

48.  He cannot live alone. ——–?

49.  It is man who pollutes his environment. ——–?

50.  Every mother loves her child. ——–?

51.  Don’t forget me.——–?

52. My father and I are happy. ——–?

53.  Men should not tell a lie.——–?

54.   We live in Bangladesh. ——–?

55.   The weather was fine yesterday. ——–?

Answer of Tag questions

 01. Nothing is impossible, is it?

02. I think everybody knows it, don’t they?

03. The idle always lag behind, don’t they?

04. Let’s motivate them, shall we?

05. Motivation seldom goes in vain, does it?

06. Congratulations, you have made an excellent result, haven’t you?

07. Thanks. But my parents and teachers also deserve the credit, don’t they?

08. We ought to remain grateful them, oughtn’t we?

09. You too studied hard, didn’t you?

10. It is our duty to study in a disciplined way, isn’t it?

11. Let us start our journey, shall we?

12. They used to play football in the afternoon, didn’t they?

13. Nobody should laugh at the blind.  Should they?

14. There is nothing for her to eat, is there?

15. Mina had better to stay at home, hadn’t she?

16. You aren’t doing the work, are you?

17. Somebody left their house yesterday, didn’t they?

18. What a beautiful day it is, isn’t it?

19. A cat catches a mouse, doesn’t it?

20. Bangladesh is our motherland, isn’t she?

21. Something is burning, aren’t they?

22. Rahim as well as his friends was present, wasn’t he?

23. He did it, didn’t he?

24. I know nothing about him, do I?

25. Let’s arrange a class party, shall we?

26. The moon shines at night, isn’t it?

27. Everybody loves flower, don’t they?

28. Nothing can satisfy him, can it?

29. He has few reasons for waiting, hasn’t he?

30. That was my pen, wasn’t it/ that?

31. Nobody believes a liar, do they?

32. We have to study English, haven’t we?

33. Let her solve the matter, will you?

34. You had better leave now, hadn’t you?

35. We ought to love our motherland, oughtn’t we?

36. Look at this paper, will you?

37. Let’s phone, shall we?

38. It is a beautiful afternoon, isn’t it?

39. Let’s go out for a walk, shall we?

40. The police arrested him, didn’t they?

41. Both are responsible, aren’t they?

42. Let’s take an oath today, shall we?

43. This is the right way to do it, isn’t this?

44. Life is very busy in the big cities, isn’t it?

45. We needed a change in thoughts, didn’t we?

46. Let us make them realize it, shall we?

47. Man is a social being, isn’t he?

48. He cannot live alone, can he?

49. It is man, who pollutes his environment, isn’t it?

50. Every mother loves her child, don’t they?

51. Don’t forget me, will you?

52. My father and I are happy, aren’t we?

53. Men should not tell a lie, should they?

54. We live in Bangladesh, don’t we?

55. The weather was fine yesterday, wasn’t it?

read full post...

Important Questions for DU LLB 2019 : Lok Sabha - 1

Posted By: Admin on 29 APR 2019

Important Questions from polity Based on Lok Sabha

  • Representation of union territories in Lok sabha  are chosen by
    • Ans. Direct election
  • What is the minimum age to become a member of Lok Sabha ?
    • Ans. 25 years
  • Number of members in Lok sabha from state is
    • Ans. 530
  • The maximum number of members of Lok sabha has been fixed by constitution of India
    • Ans. 552
  • Number of members in Lok sabha from union Territories is
    • Ans. 20
  • Number of members in Lok sabha from Anglo Indian Community is
    • Ans. 2
  • How many members of the Lok sabha must support a motion of “No confidence “ in the govt, before it can be admitted by the speaker ?
    • Ans. 50
  • To be officially recognised by the speaker of Lok sabha as an Opposition Group, a party or coalition of parties must have at least
    • Ans. 50 members
  • The term of Lok sabha from the date of its first meeting is
    • Ans. 5 years
  • The maximum possible gap between two sessions of Loksabha (parliament ) is
    • Ans. 6 months
  • A non member of parliament can be minister for a maximum period of
    • Ans. 6 months
  • During the proclamation of emergency is in operation the term of Lok sabha may be extended at a time for a period not excedding
    • Ans. 1 year
  • A money bill passed by the Lok sabha is deemd to have been passed by the Rajya sabha also when no action is taken by the upper house within
    • Ans. 14 days
  • A member of Loksabha (parliament) Will lose his membership of parliament if he is continuously absent from session for
    • Ans. 60 days
  • How many times was  term of Lok Sabha extended up to 6 years ?
    • Ans. Once
  • How many sessions are held in a year in Lok sabha
    • Ans. 3
  • What is the quoram to constitute a sitting of the Lok sabha
    • Ans. 1/10 of the total number of the house under article 100(3) of the constitution
  • The opposition party status is accorded to a political party in the Lok sabha only if it captures at least
    • Ans. 10 % seats
  • The maximum number of Public Accounts Committee can be
    • Ans. 22
  • The provision of the join sitting of the Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha under president is provided by the article of
    • Ans. 108
  • When does Lok Sabha election candidate forfeit his security deposit
    • Ans. When he fails to secure even 1/6 of total votes polled
  • When was zero hour introduced in the parliamentary affairs in India?
    • Ans. 1962
  • The first mid term elections for Lok sabha were held in
    • Ans. 1971
  • The allocation of seat in the present Lok sabha is based on which census ?
    • Ans. 1971 (Article-82)
  • The statewise allocation of seats in Lok sabha is based on the 1971 census , upto which year does this remain intact ?
    • Ans. 2026
  • When was the first session of lok sabha held
    • Ans. 13th may , 1952
  • When was the Lok Sabha (the house of people) first constituted ?
    • Ans. 17 April 1952 after the first general elections from 25 October 1951 to 21 Feb 1952
  • The first no confidence motion moved in the Lok sabha after independence was in the year
    • Ans. 1963
  • Which state of India has highest number of Lok sbha constituencies
    • Ans. UP
  • Which state has the largest number of seats reserved for ST in Lok sabha
    • Ans. MP
  • Which states has the largest percentage of reserved parliamentary seats ?
    • Ans. UP
  • Which states elect only one member of Lok sabha ?
    • Ans. Sikkim
  • Which one is the largest Lok sabha constituency ?
    • Ans. laddakh
  • What is Zero hour in parliament
    • Ans. When matters of utmost importance are raised
  • Which innovative discussion process is introduced by the  Loksabha (Indian parliament) to the world Parliamentary system ?
    • Ans. Zero hour
  • The time immediately following the question Hour has come to be known as
    • Ans. Zero Hour
  • “Zero Hour” in political jargon refers to
    • Ans. Question -Answer 
  • What could be the maximum time limit of “Zero hour” in the Lok sabha ?
    • Ans. 1 hour


read full post...

Important for DU LLB Entrance 2019 - Part 3

Posted By: Admin on 20 APR 2019

Useful questions based on Polity (Indian Parliament)

  • The committee of parliament on Official language comprises the members
    • Ans. 20 from Lok sabha and 1 from Rajya sabha
  • Which standing committees of parliament has not MP from Rajya Sabha ?
    • Ans. Estimate committee
  • Name the parliamentary Committee which scrutinizes the report of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India is …
    • Ans. Estimate committee
  • Which is the largest committee of the parliament ?
    • Ans. Estimate committee
  • Which Parliamentary Committees in India acts as ‘watch –dog’ on departmental expenditure  and irregularities ?
    • Ans. Public Accounts Committee
  • Public Accounts Committee is chaired by
    • Ans. Member of opposition
  • Committee on Public is chaired by
    • Ans. Lok sabha member
  • Which house is better placed with regard to control over the executive ?
    • Ans. Lok sabha
  • Propagation of the house means :
    • Ans. The house itself stands terminated
  • Who may belong to the Rajya sabha but can speak in both the Lok sabha and the Rajya sbha  ?
    • Ans. Ministers who are members of the Rajya sabha
  • Distribution of seats of the parliament are based on which census ?
    • Ans. 1971
  • The first no confidence motion moved in the Lok sabha after independence was in the year ?
    • Ans. 1963
  • Where is the first Parliamentary form of Governor was formed
    • Ans. Britain
  • How long can a person remain a minister in India without being Parliament ?
    • Ans. 6 months

read full post...

Important for DU LLB Entrance 2019 - Part 2

Posted By: Admin on 17 APR 2019

Useful questions based on Polity (Indian Parliament)

  • Who appoints the chairman of Public Accounts Committee ?
    • Ans. Speaker of the Lok sabha
  • Which is responsible for  the preparation of union Budget to the parliament
    • Ans. Department of Economic Affairs
  • ‘Zero hour ‘in political jargon refers to …
    • Ans. Question-answer session
  • ‘Vote an Account’ permits Union Government to …
    • Ans. Withdraw money from Consolidated Fund of India for specific period
  • Which bills must be passed by each House of the parliament separately by special majority
    • Ans. Constitutional Amendment Bill
  • Bill of which categories can be initiated only in Lok sabha
    • Ans. Money Bill
  • If a money Bill passed by the Lok sabha is not returned by the Rjya sabha within 14 days , then …..
    • Ans. The bill will be sent to the President for his signature and consent
  • Who decides whether a bill is a money bill or not ?
    • Ans. Speaker of the Loksabha
  • If a member of parliament becomes disqualified for membership , the decision of his removal is taken by
    • Ans. President in accordance with the opinion of the Election Commission



  • Who presides over the Joint Session the Lok sabha and Rajya Sabha in India
    • Ans. Speaker of the Loksabha
  • The Speaker can stop a member of parliament from speaking and let another member speak .This phenomenon is known as
    • Ans. Yielding the floor
  • Who decides dispute regarding disqualification Members of parliament
    • Ans. President in accordance with the opinion of the Election Commission`
  • A money Bill in the Indian parliament can be introduced only with the recommendation of the ..
    • Ans. President
  • The union budget is laid before the two House parliament in accordance with Article No….Indian constitution
    • Ans. 112
  • Which ministries its own budget and present in the parliament every year ?
    • Ans. Finance ministry
  • A money bill passé by the Lok Sabha  has to be passed/returned by Rajya sabha within ….
    • Ans. 14 days
  • What is Zero hour
    • Ans. When matters of utmost importance are raised
  • What could be the maximum time limit of ‘Zero Hour”
    • Ans. 1 hour
  • By which Bill the Government proposed collection of revenues for a year ?
    • Ans. Finance bill
  • Who forms the Advisory Committee of the Parliament ?
    • Ans. Speaker of the Lok sabha

read full post...

Important for DU LLB Entrance 2019 - Part 1

Posted By: Admin on 19 APR 2019

Useful questions based on Polity (Indian Parliament)

  • Age of a candidate contest parliamentary election should not be lesser than
    • Ans. 25 years
  • The most important features of the Indian parliament is that?
    • Ans. It also comprises the President
  • The first Joint meeting of both the house of the Indian parliament  was held in connection with_____.
    •  Ans. Dowry abolition bill
  • Parliament’s expenditure is controlled by .
    • Ans. Comptroller & Auditor General
  • In order o be recognized  as an official Opposition Group in the parliament , how many seats should it have ?
    • Ans.  1/10th of the total strength
  • A proclamation of emergency must be placed before the parliament for its approval for which period
    • Ans. Within 1 month
  • Who said, parliamentary system provides a daily as well as a periodic assessment of the government
    • Ans. Ambedkar
  • The quorum of parliament is
    • Ans. 1/10th total membership
  • Which non –number of parliament has the right of address it
    • Ans. Attorney general of India
  • Which functionary can be invited to give his opinion in the Parliament ?
    • Ans. Attorney General of India
  • When a bill is referred to a joint sitting of both the houses of Indian parliament , it has to be passed by ….
    • Ans. Simple majority of members present and voting
  • What can be maximum number interval between two sessions of parliament ?
    • Ans. 6 months
  • Who can initiate  impeachment proceedings against the President of India ?
    • Ans. Either house of the parliament
  • Who will decide the Office of Profit
    • Ans. Parliament
  • A bill passed in parliament becomes an Act after —
    • Ans. The president has given his assent
  • The maximum strength of the nominated members in both the houses of parliament can be
    • Ans. 14
  • A bills may be introduced in which House of parliament
    • Ans. Either house of parliament
  • Who call the Joint session of the two house of the parliament?
    • Ans. The president
  • Which has the powers to create a new all India service ?
    • Ans. Parliament
  • The provisions related to Official Language of India can be amended by
    • Ans. Minimum 2/3 majority

read full post...


Posted By: Admin on 16 APR 2019

Legal profession is a fast growing profession. In these days of globalization and liberalization, it is likely to get further momentum as more lawyers would be required to handle cases arising out of international trade and as a result of growing importance of WTO.At present there are more than 5,00,000 advocates in India and the number is swelling with 15,000 new enrolments every year. Lawyers are held in high esteem in a civil society as they render valuable service to all segments of the society by getting their constitutional and legal rights enforced through courts-civil or criminal, at all levels of judiciary, that is, Trial Court, High Court, Supreme Court or Quasi- Judicial Institutions. Persons holding law degree or other higher legal qualifications have ample employment opportunities in private as well as public sector .It is their choice whether they opt for service or prefer to practice as a lawyer.

Legal Practitioner / Advocate / Legal Advisor

Lawyers can work as legal counsel and legal advisors for corporate sector, firms, organizations, legal persons, individuals and families. They can work as trustees of various trusts, as teachers, law reporters, company secretaries and so on. Additional law qualification along with other degrees offers scope for a wide range of employment opportunities. One who desires to become an advocate and practice law as a profession in India must have obtained basic law degree. He/ she should get himself/herself enrolled with State Central Bar Council as per provisions contained in the Advocates Act, 1961. Besides, he/she is also required to qualify in the entry test recently introduced by Bar Council of India failing which no one shall be enrolled as an advocate. An application for admission as an advocate shall be made in the prescribed form to the State Bar Council within whose jurisdiction the applicant proposes to practice.

Government Service

Persons possessing requisite qualifications are recruited for Indian legal service against various posts– Legal advisors in Department of Legal Affairs and Legislative Counsel in Legislative Department. These officers can reach the level of Secretary to the Government of India with the passage of time according to their suitability.Likewise, Legislative Counsels are also appointed in official languages Wing of the Legislative Department for Hindi and Regional languages-(Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada ,Telugu, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu). At the state level, too, officers with legal qualifications and professional qualifications are also appointed against similar posts. However, designations may vary from state to state. Besides, Law officers/ Legal advisors are appointed in almost all the ministries/departments/ undetakings of the Govt. of India and State Governments. All these posts are generally filled up by recruitment through UPSC and State Public Service Commissions on regular/ deputation basis. Basic qualification for all these posts is a degree in law, besides a degree in Arts/Science/Commerce etc. and professional experience as per the requirements of each post. In addition to that members of Law Commission, Govt. Advocates, public prosecutors, solicitors, Attorney General, Advocate general, Notaries and Oath Commissioners as also legal secretaries in assemblies ,staff in higher/lower judiciary/Quasi-Judicial institutions, Judicial members in CAT, Income tax, Sales tax, Excise and other tribunals are also appointed as per rules as and when the vacancies occur. However, fresh Law Graduates are appointed against non-gazetted posts generally equivalent to the post of Assistant in the Secretariat, such as Legal Assistants, Legal/Judicial Translators etc..

They are also recruited as commissioned officers in the legal branches of the Indian Army, Navy and Air force. They conduct courts of enquiry and court martial of erring service personnel as per law.


In the Judiciary, the lowest judicial cadre posts of Magistrate/Munsif or Sub-Judge are filled up by recruitment through public service commissions or otherwise under the supervision of the High Court. Basic qualification for all these posts is a degree in law(professional) , besides a degree in Arts / Science / Commerce etc. and the age limit for all these posts is generally 35 years which is relaxable for special categories as per rules. A Magistrate presides over criminal court and a Munsif/Sub-judge deals with civil cases. These officers can become District and Sessions Judge by promotion and can also be elevated to the office of a Judge of the High Court and the Supreme Court subject to their seniority and suitability. Earlier District and Sessions Judges were promoted from those in service/ selected from amongst the practicing lawyers but now in most of the states they are being recruited through competitive examination conducted by State commissions / High Courts.


Those with good academic record, particularly holding LL.M, Ph.D degrees or published work of a high standard, can take up jobs in any University or Institute offering law courses to students. There is wide scope for visiting professors as private universities are coming up in large number and they prefer such persons because of their eminence and acumen.

Writing/Editing Law Books/Journals/Reports

If one is familiar with the complexities of law and the procedure and is in a position to understand the intricacies of case law and has a flair for writing he/she is fit to be an author of law books / legal commentaries and a proper person to bring out law reports, produce law journals, take up all other journalistic assignments and compile law lexicons.

Legal Outsourcing

Legal Outsourcing refers to the practice of a law firm obtaining legal services from an outside law firm. This practice is, however, known as offshoring when the outsourced entity is based in another country. According to a report, India has huge potential in legal outsourcing, with the number of jobs in the field increasing to 79,000 by 2015, a study has said. The field of legal outsourcing was largely untapped.At present the number of jobs in legal outsourcing in India stood less than 12,000.The most important challenges to legal outsourcing included concerns about data security, conflict of interest rules, and the need for Indian lawyers to pass US bar examinations.


As regards remuneration, it depends upon the field a law graduate chooses.If one gets a job in a Govt.department, or in public sector or in a university or in any other organization where govt. rules are applicable he/she will be entitled to get emoluments as per pay scales prescribed by the Government from time to time. After acceptance of recommendations of 6th Pay Commission, Govt. servants are getting handsome salary, say between Rs. 20,000 and one lakh and above depending on the designation and nature of job. Now multinational companies and law firms have also started campus selections and have been offering annual packages between three and four lakhs as per the standing of the company. However, those who start practice of their own have to struggle in the early stage but their constant efforts may help them in reaching any heights and the sky is the limit. Besides , law reporters, legal journalists, authors, writers and editors associated with reputed publications as also free-lancers have good earning.

Course Details

One can either pursue a three-year law course (LLB) after graduation in any discipline or a five-year course after twelfth standard examinations, leading to a B.A.;LLB (Hons) degree . Admission to LLB is generally based on percentage of marks scored at graduation level. However, some Universities/ Institutions like National Law Schools conduct entrance tests, too. The B.A. LL.B programme usually covers practical training including court attendance, participation in mock court proceedings, seminars, symposiums, conferences on legal subjects / hands on training at legal aid centres and research projects. In addition to LLB degree, many universities and institutes also offer other diploma courses in several disciplines of law. P.G. Programme in law (LL.M) is of 2 years duration & eligibility is LLB degree. After completing LL.M Course, one can join Ph.D. LL.D degrees are also conferred on eminent scholars.

Fields of Specialisation

Civil/Criminal Law
Constitutional Law
Administrative Law
Human Rights Law
Family Law
Corporate Law
Business Law
International Law
Labour Law
Real Estate Law
Intellectual property /Patent Law

read full post...

Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP)

Posted By: Admin on 16 APR 2019

Key Highlights

  • Part-IV of the constitution – Art. 36 to 51.
  • Borrowed from the Constitution of Ireland.
  • These directives provide the ideals which the Union and the State governments must keep in mind while formulating a policy or passing a law. The DPSPs constitute a comprehensive social and economic objective for a modern democratic state.
  • While fundamental rights provide the political pillar of Indian democracy, its social and economic pillars are provided by DPSPs.
  • Non Justiciable in nature –
    • FRs are Justiciable rights but DPSPs are non-justiciable rights.
    • Although DPSPs were no less important than fundamental rights yet they entailed financial back-up to implement them.
    • Since the Indian state had and still has limited economic capacity, making DPSPs justiciable would have put the state in a tight situation. This fact explains why DPSPs were deliberately made non-justiciable.
    • Despite being non-justiciable importance of DPSPs has been stated in Art. 37 which declares that although the DPSPs are non-justiciable, they should be considered fundamental in the governance of the country.

What are the different categories of DPSPs?

Socialistic Principles:

  1. Adequate means of livelihood for all citizens
  2. Fair distribution of wealth and material resources among all classes and to prevent concentration of wealth in a few hands
  3. Equal pay for equal work for men as well as women; and
  4. To secure just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.

Gandhian Principles

  1. To organize village Panchayats and to endowing them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government;
  2. To promote cottage industries on individual or co-operative basis in rural areas;
  3. The safeguard and promote the educational and economic interests or the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes;
  4. To bring about the prohibition and consumption of intoxicating liquor; and
  5. To organize agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and in particular prohibit slaughter of cows.

Liberal Principles

  1. To secure uniform and liberal code of law for all citizens of India;
  2. To separate the judiciary from the executive;
  3. to raise the standard of nutrition and standard of living of the people;
  4. To protect monuments of historical and national interest;
  5. Equal justice and free legal aid to economically backward classes;
  6. participation of workers in management of organizations engaged in any industry; and
  7. Promotion and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life.

Provisions relating to be International Peace and Security:

  1. To promote international peace and security;
  2. To maintain just and honorable relations between nations
  3. To foster respect for international law and treaty obligations;
  4. To encourage settlement of disputes by arbitration.

Article Wise Explanation of DPSPS

  • Art. 36: This defines the term state in the same way as Art.12
  • Art.37: This declares the importance of DPSPs. It states that though DPSPs are not justiciable yet they shall be considered fundamental in the governance of the country and it shall be the duty of the state to include these directives in their policies.
  • Art. 38: This directs the state to create a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people. This social order must provide social, economic and political justice. Under 44th Amendment, clause (2) has been added to Art.38 which directs the state to minimize inequalities in income, to eliminate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities.
  • Art. 39: This is a very important article containing a number of directives which go a long way to establish what is known as welfare state in India. It directs the states to secure the following:-
    – Adequate means of livelihood for citizens both men and women.
    – Control and ownership of the material resources of the community to be distributed in such a manner that it serves the common good.
    – The operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment.
    – Equal pay for equal work for both men and women.
    – Health and strength of workers, men & women and children are not abused and the citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter Avocations unsuited to their age or strength.
    – Children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and their childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and moral and material abandonment (added by 42nd Amendment, 1976).
    – Thus, Art. 39 is very wide in its scope. It requires the state to ensure adequate means of livelihood, fair distribution of wealth, equal pay for equal work and protection of children and labour. Specially Art. 39 (b & c) lay the foundations of a welfare state.
  • Art. 39-A: Added to the Constitution by 42nd Amendment, 1976, this article requires the state to provide for equal justice and free legal aid. In pursuance of this article, Parliament has passed the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987.
  • Art. 40: This directs the state to organize village panchayats and confer adequate powers to them so that they can function as units of self-government. Accordingly, Parliament has passed 73rd Amendment, 1992 which has introduced panchayats in part IX in the Constitution.
  • Art. 41: Under this Article the state is directed to provide right to work, to education and to public assistance subject to its economic capacity.
  • Art. 42: Under this article, the state shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. The state has enacted laws such as the industrial Disputes Act, Minimum Wages Act, Maternity Relief Act, etc., to implement this article.
  • Art. 43: This article directs the state to make efforts to secure living wages and organize cottage industries in rural areas.
  • Art. 43-A: Added by 42nd Amendment, 1976, this article calls for legislation by the state to ensure workers participation in the management of industries.
  • Art. 44: This article contains a very important directive, viz., implementation of a Uniform Civil Code for the citizens throughout India. The state is supposed to take steps to establish a Uniform Civil code for all the citizens irrespective of caste, creed or religion. Unfortunately, despite this provision in the Constitution, there has been no implementation of uniform civil code since the adoption of the Constitution. A uniform civil code implies that persons belonging to different religions and beliefs would be governed by same set of laws in matters of marriage, divorce, adoption, succession to property, etc
  • Art. 45: Provision for free and compulsory education for children till the age of 14 years. However, this article has been amended by 86th Amendment Act, 2002 which has inserted Art. 21A in the constitution making right to education a fundamental right for all children between 6-14 years of age. Now Art. 45 direct the state to make provisions for early childhood care and education for all children till the age of 6 years.
  • Art. 46: This article seeks to protect the educational and economic interests of SC/STs and other weaker sections. A number of educational facilities have been extended to SC/STs in pursuance of this article.
  • Art. 47: The state has been directed by this article to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. This also includes prohibition of liquor and intoxicating drugs.
  • Art. 48: Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. The state under this article has to organize agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines. This also includes prohibition of killing of cows, calves and other milch and draught cattle.
  • Art. 48A: Added by 42nd Amendment, 1976, this article enjoins on the state task of protecting and improving environment, forests and wild life. A number of acts relating to protecting the environment, forests and wild life have been enacted.
  • Art. 49: This article obligates the state to protect monuments and places of national importance.
  • Art. 50: Separation of judiciary from the executive in the public services of the state. This article provides that there should be a separate judicial service free from executive control in the states. This article has been implemented by amending the CrPC in 1973 under which the judicial magistrates are being appointed separately in the states and they are accountable to the High Courts and not to the state executive.
  • Art. 51: This article requires the state to promote international peace and security, maintain good relations between nations and respect international laws.

DPSPs at Work

A number of legislations have been enacted by both Central and State governments to implement various directive principles.

  • Art. 39(b) – Agriculture Land Ceiling Acts were passed. All these are relatable to
  • Art. 40 – Under 73rd and 74th Amendments, powers have been conferred on Zilla Parishads, Municipalities and Panchayats.
  • Art. 39 (b) and (c) – In 1971 fourteen banks were nationalized. During the seventies many industries were taken over by the government.
  • Art. 39 (d) – Legislation guaranteeing equal pay for equal work is relatable to.
  • Art. 43 – The 26th Amendment of the Constitution made in 1971 abolished the privy purses, which were granted to the Rulers of Indian States. Various Boards and Commissions have been established by the State. Some of them are Khaadi and Village industries Commission, All India Handicraft Board. All India Handloom Board, Silk Board and Coir Board.
  • Art. 48 – Many States have enacted laws to prohibit slaughter of cows and bullocks.
  • Arts. 41, 42, 43A – The numerous Acts pertaining to labour, e.g., Minimum Wages Act, Workmen Compensation Act, Maternity Benefit Act, Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, The Factories Act etc.
  • Art. 48A – The Water Pollution, Air Pollution, Environmental Pollution Acts, The Forest Act, and Wild Life Protection Act passed by the Parliament.

DPSPs in Other Parts of Indian Constitution (Not in Part IV)

The following Directives are also non-justiciable:

  • Art. 350 A: Enjoins every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at primary stage to children of linguistic minorities.
  • Art 351 A: Enjoins the Union to promote the spread of Hindi language so that if may serve as a medium of expression of all the elements of the composite culture of India.
  • Art 355 A: Claims of Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes shall be taken into consideration, consistently with the maintenance of efficiency of administration, in the making of appointments to services and posts in connection with affairs of Union or of a State. DPSP vs. Fundamental Rights


    • It should be remembered that the Preamble, the FRs and the DPSPs are all integral parts of the same constitutional edifice.
    • They are all equally important and have to be read with each other.
    • The emphasis in the entire scheme of the Constitution under the headings of the Preamble, the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles is on building an egalitarian society and on the concept of socio-economic justice.
    • The Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles together constituted the soul of the Constitution.

read full post...