1. Since a personal pronoun works in place of a noun, the number, gender and person of the pronoun must be according to the noun only. Ex.- Ram has lost his books. (Not their) She loves his husband. Incorrect) She loves her husband. (Correct)
2. When two or more singular nouns are joined by ‘AND’ the Pronoun for them always in the plural number. Ex.- Mohan and Sohan have lost his books. (Incorrect) Mohan and Sohan have lost their books. (Correct)
3. When two or more singular nouns joined by ‘AND’ are preceded by ‘EACH’ and ‘EVERY’ the pronoun must be singular. Ex.- Every student and every teacher took his or her seat. Each of Ram and Shyam has done his work. Each man and each boy in the party has got his share.
4. When a singular nouns and a plural noun are combined by ‘OR’, ‘EITHER’ OR ‘NEITHER’ NOR the singular noun usually comes first in the sentence and the pronoun must be in the plural number. Ex.- Either the manager or his subordinates failed in their duty in sending the official message.
5. When two or more singular nouns are joined by Either OR, neither nor the pronouns is always in the singular Ex.- Ram or Mohan should invest his money in some business. Neither Ram nor Shyam confessed his guilt Either Sita or Kamla forgot to take her prize.
6. Either or neither are always used in relation to two things or two persons for more than two ‘ANY’, or ‘NONE’ must be used. Ex.- Either of the two girls can pay for it. Neither of the two brothers has been selected. Any one of the employees can claim it. None of the students of this class has passed.
7. When in a sentence ‘one’ is used as the subject all the pronouns in the sentence must be changed into ‘one’ or one’s and not his, her or him. Ex.-One should keep one’s promise. One should do one’s duty. One must finish one’s task in time.
8. When any pronoun functions as the complement of the verb ‘To be’, it is always in the nominative case. Ex.- It is me who have to go. (Incorrect) It is I who have to go. (Correct) It is him who is to blame. (Incorrect) It is he who is to blame. (Correct) It was he who could solve the problem Easily.
9. Whenever any pronoun functions as an object to a verb or a preposition, it is in the objective case. Ex.- It is for he to consider. (Incorrect) It is for him to consider. (Correct) Ask he to go. (Incorrect) Ask him to go. (Correct)
10. When two singular nouns joined by AND denote the same person or thing the pronoun used for them must be singular in number. The article ‘THE’ is placed before the first Noun. Ex.- The accounts officer and treasures should be careful in his work of keeping accounts.
11. When a personal pronoun is connected by a conjunction with some other word in the objective case, it must be in the objective or accusative case. Ex.- These clothes are for you and me. (not I)
12. A pronoun should be used in the objective case in a sentence beginning with Let. Ex.- Let him go to his office Let her submit the records in time.
13. While confessing a fault (or expressing a negative idea) the sequence of the personal pronouns should be as follows: I, you and he are in the wrong and will be punished. [First person first, second person next and third person last]
14. While expressing a positive idea or praise, the sequence of the personal pronouns should be as follows: You, He and I will get an award for the good work we have done. [Second person (2), third person (3), and first person (1)] You, he and I have finished the work. Ram, I and you have finished our studies. (Incorrect) You, Ram and I have finished our studies. (Correct)
15. After ‘BUT’, ‘EXCEPT’, ‘BETWEEN’ and ‘LET’ the pronoun is used in objective case where as after such as in’ the subjective case Ex.- Everyone laughed but I. (Incorrect) Everyone laughed but me. (Correct) Now attended the meeting except he. (Incorrect) Now attended the meeting except him. (Correct) Let we laugh away our sorrows. (Incorrect) Let us laugh away our sorrows. (Correct) This is between you and I. (Incorrect) This is between you and me. (Correct) They do not have a lining far such a person as me. (Incorrect) They do not have a liking for such a person as I. (Correct)
16. ‘Some’ is used in affirmative sentences to express quantity or degree. ‘Any’ is used in Negative or interrogative sentences. Ex.- I shall buy some apples. I shall not buy any apples. Have you bought any apples? I shall read any book. (Incorrect) I shall read some book. (Correct)
17. Enjoy, apply, resign, acquit, drive, exert, avail, pride, absent, drink, oversleep, overreach, Revenge, present etc. when used as transitive verbs, always take a reflexive pronoun after them. Ex.- He absented from the class. (Incorrect) He absented himself from the class. (Corrected) He presented himself before the manager. He absented himself from the office today.
18. When a pronoun stands for a collective noun, it must be in the singular number and in the neuter gender if the collective noun is viewed as a whole- Ex.- The Jury gave its verdict. The Jury were divided in their opinions.
19. (a) Each other is used about two persons. Ex.- The two brothers disliked each other. Romeo and Juliet loved each other. The two children quarreled with each other. (b) One another is used about more than two- Ex.- Good boys do not quarrel with one another. All the students of the class are friendly, they like one another.
20. The pronouns who, whom, whose are generally used for persons Who – Nominative case Whom – Objective case Whose – Possessive case. Ex.- Shikha is the student who got an award. They are the thieves whom the police caught. This is the student whose certificates are lost.
21. Use of ‘WHICH’ (a) For infants, small animals and objects. Ex.- This is the baby which was lost in the theatre. This is the dog which my friend bought from the U.S. (b) When selection is expressed. Ex.- Which of these television sets do you want to purchase? (c) To refer to a sentence Ex.- He was said to be drunk, which was not true.
22. Uses of ‘THAT’ (a) For persons, lifeless things and small animals in the singular or in the plural number. Ex.- This is the girl that failed in the exam. This is the Radio that I bought Yesterday. (b) As a substitute for a singular noun already mentioned. Ex.- The weather of Hyderabad is for better than Chennai. (Wrong) The weather of Hyderabad is far better than that of Chennai. (Right)
NOUN Kinds of Noun: 1. Proper Noun: a proper noun is the name of some particular person or place. Ex- Ram , Shyam, Delhi.
2. Common Noun: A Common noun is a name given in common to every person or thing of the same kind or class. Ex- boy, girl, teacher etc.
3. Collective noun: A collective noun is the name of a group of persons or things. Ex- army, committee, crowd etc.
4.Abstract Noun: a noun denoting an idea, quality, or state rather than a concrete object. Ex- strength, innocence, fear, judgment. Etc.
5. Material Noun: Material noun is the name given to the material, substance or things made up of The alloy. Ex- cotton, gold, silver etc.
NOUN: Gender 1. Masculine Gender A noun that denotes male animal is said to be of the Masculine Gender. Ex- Man, boy, Tiger, Sun etc.
2. Feminine Gender: A noun that denotes a female animal is said to be of the Feminine Gender. Ex- woman, girl, nature, lioness etc.
3. Common Gender: A noun that denotes either a male or a female is said to be of the common gender. Ex- Parent, child, student, cousin etc.
4.Neuter Gender: A noun that denotes a thing without life , neither male nor female , is said to be of the Neuter gender. Ex- Book, Pen, room etc.
NOUN: NUMBER 1. Singular Noun: A noun that denotes one person or thing , is said to be in the Singular Number. Ex- pen, cow, boy etc.
2. Plural Noun: A noun that denotes more than one person or thing , is said to be in the plural Number. Ex- Pens, Boys, Cows etc
NOUN: countable / uncountable Countable nouns are the names of objects, people etc that we can count. Ex- book, apple, doctor, horse etc.
Uncountable nouns are the names of things which we can’t count. They mainly denote substance and abstract things. Ex- milk, oil, sugar, gold, honesty etc.
NOUN: CASES The case of a noun tells us about the position of that noun or pronoun in a sentence. In English, there are five cases.
Nominative case: a noun is said to be in the nominative case if it is the subject of a verb. Ex- Ram is an intelligent boy.
Objective case: Nouns or Pronouns are said to be in objective case if they are the direct object of verbs or the objects of the preposition.
Dative case: A noun is said to be in Dative case if it is the indirect object of the verb. Rohan brought me a flower. (‘Me’ is in dative case)
Possessive case: A noun is said to be in the possessive case if it denotes possession or ownership. Ex- This is your pencil. (‘your’ is in possessive case)
Vocative case : A noun or pronoun is said to be in vocative case if it is used to call ( or to get attention of a person or persons) Ex- Mr. Mallya , people are waiting for you in the hall. (Mr. Mallya is in vocative case)
NOUN in Apposition when one noun follows another to describe it, the noun which follows is said to be in apposition to the noun which comes before it. Ex- Ram , our captain, made fifty runs. Kabir , the great reformer, was a weaver.
RULES AND EXAMPLES
1. Some nouns always take a singular verb. Scenery, advice, information, machinery, stationery, furniture, abuse, fuel, rice, gram, issue, bedding, repair, news, mischief, poetry, business, economics, physics, mathematics, classic, ethics, athletics, innings, gallows. (A) The scenery of Kashmir are enchanting. (Correct use- is) (A) He has given advices. (Correct use- advice)
2. Some nouns are singular in meaning, but they are used as plural nouns and always take a plural verb. Cattle, gentry, vermin, peasantry, artillery, people, clergy, company, police. (A) The cattle is grazing in the ground. (correct use- are) (B) Police has controlled the situation. ( correct use- have)
3. Some nouns are always used in a plural form and always take a plural verb. Trousers, scissors, spectacles, stockings, shorts, measles, goods, alms, premises, thanks, tidings, annals, chattels, etc. (A) Where is my trousers? (correct use- are) (B) Where are my trousers? Correct (A) Spectacles is a costly item. ( correct use- are)
4. There are some nouns that indicate length, measure, money, weight or number. When they are preceded by a numeral, they remain unchanged in form. Foot, meter, pair, score, dozen, head, year, hundred, thousand, million. (A) It is a five – years degree course. (correct use- year) (A) I have seven dozens of shoes. (correct use- dozen)
5. Collective nouns such as jury, public, team, committee, government, audience, orchestra, company, etc. are used both as singular and Plural. It depends on the usage. (A) The jury was divided in their opinion. (correct use- were) (A) The team have not arrived yet. (correct use- has)
6. Some nouns have one meaning in the singular and another in the plural: a.Advice = counsel, advices = information b.Air = atmosphere, airs = proud c. Authority = command, authorities = persons in power d. Good = wise , goods = property e. Iron = metal, irons = fetters, chains f. Force = strength forces = army g. Content = satisfaction, contents = things contained h. Respect = regards, respects = compliments i. Work = job works = compositions, factories,.
7. People are often confused or they commit mistakes in the use of certain nouns. (A) Lecturership is wrong: lectureship is correct. (B) Freeship is wrong; free – studentship is correct. (C) Boarding is wrong; boarding house is correct. (D) Family members is wrong; members of the family is correct. (E) English teacher is wrong; the teacher of English is correct. (F) Cousin – brother or sister is wrong; only cousin is correct.
(G) Wages means punishments when used in the singular. Ex- The wages of sin is death. (H) It also means charges for the labour when used in the plural sense. Ex- The wages of daily workers have been raised.
8. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person, number and gender. Ex- Every student must bring his luggage. All students must do their home work. Each of the boys must carry his own bag.
9. While using ‘everybody’ ‘everyone’, ‘anybody’, and ‘each’ the pronoun of the masculine or the feminine gender is used according to the context. I shall be happy to help each of the boys in this practice.
But when the sex is not mentioned, we use the pronoun of the masculine gender. Anyone can qualify this exam if he tries. Each of the six boys in the class has finished their tasks. (Incorrect) Each of the six boys in the class has finished his task. (Correct)
10. The pronoun ‘one’ must be followed by ‘one’s’. One must finish his homework in time. (Incorrect) One must finish one’s homework in time. (Correct)
11. Enjoy, apply, resign, acquit, drive, exert, avail, pride, absent, etc., when used as transitive verbs, always take a reflexive pronoun after them. When ‘self’ is added to ‘my’, ‘your’, ‘him’, ‘her’, and ‘it’, and ‘selves’ to our and them – they are known as reflexive pronouns. He absented from the meeting. He absented himself from the meeting.
12. ‘Who’ denotes the subject and ‘whom’ is used for the object? who : It’s the subject of a verb—e.g., Who gave you that book? It’s a predicate nominative (a noun in the predicate that renames or refers to the sentence’s subject)—e.g.,This is who I am.
Whom is an objective pronoun, which is a pronoun that receives the action of a verb. It also has two main uses: It is the object of a verb—e.g., Whom should I call? It is the object of a preposition—e.g., From whom did you get this information?
13. When two or more singular nouns are connected by ‘either or’; ‘neither nor’, ; and ‘or’, the pronoun used is singular. Either Rohan or Sohan will give their bike. (Incorrect) Either Rohan or sohan will give his book. (Correct)
14. When a singular and a plural noun are joined by ‘or’, ‘nor’, the pronoun must be plural. Either the student or his teachers failed in his duty. (Incorrect) Either the student or his teachers failed in their duty. (Correct)
15. ‘Whose’ is used for living persons and ‘which’ for lifeless objects. Which novel did you select? Whose photograph is lying there?
16. ‘Each other’ is used when there are two subjects or objects and ‘one another’ when there are more than two. Ram and Sita loved each other. Those five students, who are sitting there, love one another.
17. When a pronoun stands for a collective noun, it must be in the singular number and in the neuter gender if the collective noun is viewed as a whole.but if it gives an idea of different entities , plural pronoun is used. The jury gave ‘its’ verdict. Here the ‘jury’ gives the idea of one whole.
If the collective noun conveys the idea of separate individuals comprising the whole, the pronoun standing for it must be plural. The jury were divided in their opinions. in this sentence , the ‘jury’ gives the idea of several individuals.
18. If pronouns of different persons are to be used together in a sentence, the serial order of persons should be as follows; second person(2) + third (3)+ first person(1) in normal sentences. But when mistake or fault is expressed in the sentence, the order should be; first person(1) + second person(2) + third person(3). RULE-231 You, he and I have finished the work. (Normal idea) I, you and he are to blame. ( here Confession of guilt is expressed , it’s a negative idea, hence order is 123)
19. ‘Some’ is used in affirmative sentences to express quantity or degree. ‘Any’ is uses in negative or interrogative sentences. I shall buy some apples. I shall not buy any apples. Have you bought any apples? But ‘some’ may be correctly used in interrogative sentences which are, in fact, requests. Will you please give me some water?
20. The use of ‘few’, ‘a few’’ and ‘the few’ should be used with care. They denote ‘number’. ‘Few’ means ‘not many’, ‘almost nothing’. A ‘few’ is positive and means ‘some at least’. ‘The few’ means ‘whatever there is’. A few men are free from fault. (Incorrect) Few men are free from fault. (Correct) (Here the sense is negative and thus ‘a few’ is wrong.)
Few teams will qualify for the world cup. (Incorrect) A few boys will pass in the examination. (Correct)
Here the sense is positive and thus ‘few’ is incorrect. I have already read a few books that are in the library. (Incorrect) I have already read the few books that are in the library. (Correct) Here the sense is ‘whatever there is’. ’everything that is in the library’
21. Use of ‘less’ and ‘fewer’ ‘Less’ denote quantity and ‘fewer’ denote number. No less than fifty students were selected. (Incorrect) No fewer than fifty students were selected. (Correct) There are no fewer than five liters of water in the bottle. (Incorrect) There are no less than five liters of water in the bottle. (Correct)
22. Use of little, a little, the little ‘Little’ means ‘hardly any’ There is little hope of his recovery. (Incorrect) There is a little hope of his recovery. (correct) ‘A little’ means ‘some’, though not much. Little knowledge is a dangerous thing. (Incorrect) A little knowledge is a dangerous thing. (Correct)
‘The little means ‘not much but all there is’. Little water that is in the bottle may be used for the child. (Incorrect) The little water that is in the bottle may be used for the patient. (Correct)
23. Use of elder, older. ‘Elder’ is used for persons of same family. ‘Older’ refers to persons as well as things and is followed by ‘than’. Rohan is elder than all other boys of this area. (Incorrect) Rohan is older than all other boys of this area. (Correct)
Sabu is my older brother. (Incorrect) Sabu is my elder brother. (Correct)
24. Normally ‘than’ is used in the comparative degree, but with words like superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior and prefer ‘to’ is used. Sara is junior than Neeta.( Incorrect) Sara is junior to Neeta. (Correct) I prefer reading than walking. (Incorrect) I prefer reading to walking. (Correct)
25. when a comparison is made by using a comparative followed by ‘than’, the word ‘other’ must exclude the thing compared form the class of things with which it is compared. He is better than any man. (Incorrect) He is better than any other man. (Correct) ‘Any man’ includes the man himself and thus the sentences will be awkward.
26. In some cases, the comparison is subtle and must be given proper attention. Ex- The climate of Delhi is better than Mumbai. (Incorrect) Here the comparison should be between the climate of Delhi and the climate of Mumbai. The climate of Delhi is better than the climate of Mumbai. (Correct) Or The climate of Ranchi is better than that of Gaya. (Correct) (Here, ‘That of’ means ‘the climate of’) If the traits are in plural, it will be ‘those of’. The products of Reliance are better than those of Suzuki. The scenery of Kashmir is better than Shimla. (Incorrect) The scenery of Kashmir is better than that of shimla. (Correct)
27. ‘many a’ is always followed by the singular verb. Many a student were drowned in the river. (Incorrect) Many a student was drowned in the river. (Correct)
28. If the subject is ‘the number of’ the singular verb is used. And when the expression (‘a +number+of) is used , plural verb is used. The number of students are very small. Incorrect The number of students is very small. Correct A number of girls has passed in the examination. (Incorrect) A number of girls have passed in the examination.( correct)
29. When ‘as well as’, ‘along with’, together with’, ‘no less than’, ‘in addition to’ and ‘not’ and ‘with’ join two subjects, the verb will be used according to the first subject. Ram, as well as his five friends, are going.( Incorrect) Ram, as well as his five friends, is going. (Correct) The teacher, along with the students, were dancing.( Incorrect) The teacher, along with the students, was going. Correct
Part II of the Constitution of India (Articles 5-11) deals with the Citizenship of India. Article 5 speaks about citizenship of India at the commencement of the Constitution (Nov 26, 1949). Article 11 gave powers to the Parliament of India to regulate the right of citizenship by law. Thus Citizenship Act 1955 was enacted by the Parliament. It is an act to provide for the acquisition and termination of Indian citizenship, and the same acts speaks about citizenship of India after the commencement of the Constitution.
ARTICLE 5 : CITIZENSHIP AT THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION
At the commencement of this Constitution, every person who has his domicile in the territory of India and – (a) who was born in the territory of India; or (b) either of whose parents was born in the territory of India; or (c) who has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India for not less than five years immediately preceding such commencement, shall be a citizen of India.
ARTICLE 6 : RIGHTS OF CITIZENSHIP OF CERTAIN PERSONS WHO HAVE MIGRATED TO INDIA FROM PAKISTAN
Notwithstanding anything in article 5, a person who has migrated to the territory of India from the territory now included in Pakistan shall be deemed to be a citizen of India at the commencement of this Constitution if – (a) he or either of his parents or any of his grand-parents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted); and (b)(i) in the case where such person has so migrated before the nineteenth day of July, 1948, he has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India since the date of his migration, or (ii) in the case where such person has so migrated on or after the nineteenth day of July, 1948, he has been registered as a citizen of India by an officer appointed in that behalf by the Government of the Dominion of India on an application made by him therefor to such officer before the commencement of this Constitution in the form and manner prescribed by that Government: Provided that no person shall be so registered unless he has been resident in the territory of India for at least six months immediately preceding the date of his application.
ARTICLE 7 : RIGHTS OF CITIZENSHIP OF CERTAIN MIGRANTS TO PAKISTAN
Notwithstanding anything in articles 5 and 6, a person who has after the first day of March, 1947, migrated from the territory of India to the territory now included in Pakistan shall not be deemed to be a citizen of India: Provided that nothing in this article shall apply to a person who, after having so migrated to the territory now included in Pakistan, has returned to the territory of India under a permit for resettlement or permanent return issued by or under the authority of any law and every such person shall for the purposes of clause (b) of article 6 be deemed to have migrated to the territory of India after the nineteenth day of July, 1948.
ARTICLE 8 : RIGHTS OF CITIZENSHIP OF CERTAIN PERSONS OF INDIAN ORIGIN RESIDING OUTSIDE INDIA
Notwithstanding anything in article 5, any person who or either of whose parents or any of whose grand-parents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted), and who is ordinarily residing in any country outside India as so defined shall be deemed to be a citizen of India if he has been registered as a citizen of India by the diplomatic or consular representative of India in the country where he is for the time being residing on an application made by him therefor to such diplomatic or consular representative, whether before or after the commencement of this Constitution, in the form and manner prescribed by the Government of the Dominion of India or the Government of India.
ARTICLE 9 : PERSONS VOLUNTARILY ACQUIRING CITIZENSHIP OF A FOREIGN STATE NOT TO BE CITIZENS
No person shall be a citizen of India by virtue of article 5, or be deemed to be a citizen of India by virtue of article 6 or article 8, if he has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of any foreign State.
ARTICLE 10 : CONTINUANCE OF THE RIGHTS OF CITIZENSHIP
Every person who is or is deemed to be a citizen of India under any of the foregoing provisions of this Part shall, subject to the provisions of any law that may be made by Parliament, continue to be such citizen.
ARTICLE 11 : PARLIAMENT TO REGULATE THE RIGHT OF CITIZENSHIP BY LAW
Nothing in the foregoing provisions of this Part shall derogate from the power of Parliament to make any provision with respect to the acquisition and termination of citizenship and all other matters relating to citizenship.
Info-bits related to Citizenship of India
1. The conferment of a person, as a citizen of India, is governed by Articles 5 to 11 (Part II) of Indian Constitution.
2. The legislation related to this matter is the Citizenship Act 1955, which has been amended by the Citizenship (Amendment) Act 1986, the Citizenship (Amendment) Act 1992, the Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2003, and the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2005.
3. Article 9 of Indian Constitution says that a person who voluntarily acquires citizenship of any other country is no longer an Indian citizen. Also, according to The Passports Act, a person has to surrender his Indian passport if he acquire citizenship of another country, it is a punishable offense under the act if he fails to surrender the passport.
4. Indian nationality law largely follows the jus sanguinis (citizenship by right of blood) as opposed to the jus soli (citizenship by right of birth within the territory).
5. The President of India is termed the first Citizen of India.
6. Acquisition of Indian Citizenship as per Citizenship Act 1955: Indian Citizenship can be acquired under the following ways : (1) Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution of India (2) Citizenship by birth : NB – This provision has different clauses for different periods (3) Citizenship by descent (4) Citizenship by registration (5) Citizenship by naturalization.
7. Persons domiciled in the territory of India as on 26 November 1949 automatically became Indian citizens by virtue of operation of the relevant provisions of the Indian Constitution coming into force. (Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution of India.)
8. Any person born in India on or after 26 January 1950, but prior to the commencement of the 1986 Act on 1 July 1987, is a citizen of India by birth. [Citizenship by birth]
9. A person born in India on or after 1 July 1987 is a citizen of India if either parent was a citizen of India at the time of the birth. [Citizenship by birth]
10. Those born in India on or after 3 December 2004 are considered citizens of India only if both of their parents are citizens of India or if one parent is a citizen of India and the other is not an illegal migrant at the time of their birth. [Citizenship by birth].
11. Termination of Indian Citizenship as per Citizenship Act 1955: One can lose citizenship of India in three ways – Renunciation, Termination and Deprivation.
12. Persons of Indian Origin (PIO) Card : A PIO card applicant has to be a person of Indian origin who is a citizen of any country, other than Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Afghanistan, China and Nepal; or a person who has held an Indian passport at any time or is the spouse of an Indian citizen or a person of Indian origin;
13. Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) card : OCI Card is for foreign nationals who were eligible to become a citizen of India on 26.01.1950 or was a citizen of India on or after that date. Applications from citizens of Bangladesh and Pakistan are not allowed.
14. Overseas Indian Card : A new Bill is pending in Parliament [The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill], which seeks to do away with the existing overseas citizen of India (OCI) card and the person of Indian origin (PIO) card, and replace them with a new overseas Indian card,
15. While PIO card holders do not require a separate visa and can enter India with multiple entry facility for 15 years; the OCI card is a multiple entry, multi-purpose lifelong visa for visiting India. OCI card-holders have parity with non-resident Indians in respect of economic, financial and educational matters except in acquiring agricultural land.
16. A PIO cardholder is required to register with local Police authorities for any stay exceeding 180 days in India on any single visit.
17. OCI is not dual citizenship. There are no voting rights for an OCI card holder
18. Citizenship (Amendment) Bill,2016
19. With The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016, the government plans to change the definition of illegal migrants. The Bill, introduced in the Lok Sabha on July 15, 2016, seeks to amend the Citizenship Act, 1955 to provide citizenship to illegal migrants, from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan, who are of Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi or Christian extraction. However, the Act doesn’t have a provision for Muslim sects like Shias and Ahmediyas who also face persecution in Pakistan.
20. The Bill also seeks to reduce the requirement of 11 years of continuous stay in the country to six years to obtain citizenship by naturalisation.
Legal profession is a fast growing profession. In these days of globalization and liberalization, it is likely to get further momentum as more lawyers would be required to handle cases arising out of international trade and as a result of growing importance of WTO.At present there are more than 5,00,000 advocates in India and the number is swelling with 15,000 new enrolments every year. Lawyers are held in high esteem in a civil society as they render valuable service to all segments of the society by getting their constitutional and legal rights enforced through courts-civil or criminal, at all levels of judiciary, that is, Trial Court, High Court, Supreme Court or Quasi- Judicial Institutions. Persons holding law degree or other higher legal qualifications have ample employment opportunities in private as well as public sector .It is their choice whether they opt for service or prefer to practice as a lawyer.
Legal Practitioner / Advocate / Legal Advisor
Lawyers can work as legal counsel and legal advisors for corporate sector, firms, organizations, legal persons, individuals and families. They can work as trustees of various trusts, as teachers, law reporters, company secretaries and so on. Additional law qualification along with other degrees offers scope for a wide range of employment opportunities. One who desires to become an advocate and practice law as a profession in India must have obtained basic law degree. He/ she should get himself/herself enrolled with State Central Bar Council as per provisions contained in the Advocates Act, 1961. Besides, he/she is also required to qualify in the entry test recently introduced by Bar Council of India failing which no one shall be enrolled as an advocate. An application for admission as an advocate shall be made in the prescribed form to the State Bar Council within whose jurisdiction the applicant proposes to practice.
Persons possessing requisite qualifications are recruited for Indian legal service against various posts– Legal advisors in Department of Legal Affairs and Legislative Counsel in Legislative Department. These officers can reach the level of Secretary to the Government of India with the passage of time according to their suitability.Likewise, Legislative Counsels are also appointed in official languages Wing of the Legislative Department for Hindi and Regional languages-(Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada ,Telugu, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu). At the state level, too, officers with legal qualifications and professional qualifications are also appointed against similar posts. However, designations may vary from state to state. Besides, Law officers/ Legal advisors are appointed in almost all the ministries/departments/ undetakings of the Govt. of India and State Governments. All these posts are generally filled up by recruitment through UPSC and State Public Service Commissions on regular/ deputation basis. Basic qualification for all these posts is a degree in law, besides a degree in Arts/Science/Commerce etc. and professional experience as per the requirements of each post. In addition to that members of Law Commission, Govt. Advocates, public prosecutors, solicitors, Attorney General, Advocate general, Notaries and Oath Commissioners as also legal secretaries in assemblies ,staff in higher/lower judiciary/Quasi-Judicial institutions, Judicial members in CAT, Income tax, Sales tax, Excise and other tribunals are also appointed as per rules as and when the vacancies occur. However, fresh Law Graduates are appointed against non-gazetted posts generally equivalent to the post of Assistant in the Secretariat, such as Legal Assistants, Legal/Judicial Translators etc..
They are also recruited as commissioned officers in the legal branches of the Indian Army, Navy and Air force. They conduct courts of enquiry and court martial of erring service personnel as per law.
In the Judiciary, the lowest judicial cadre posts of Magistrate/Munsif or Sub-Judge are filled up by recruitment through public service commissions or otherwise under the supervision of the High Court. Basic qualification for all these posts is a degree in law(professional) , besides a degree in Arts / Science / Commerce etc. and the age limit for all these posts is generally 35 years which is relaxable for special categories as per rules. A Magistrate presides over criminal court and a Munsif/Sub-judge deals with civil cases. These officers can become District and Sessions Judge by promotion and can also be elevated to the office of a Judge of the High Court and the Supreme Court subject to their seniority and suitability. Earlier District and Sessions Judges were promoted from those in service/ selected from amongst the practicing lawyers but now in most of the states they are being recruited through competitive examination conducted by State commissions / High Courts.
Those with good academic record, particularly holding LL.M, Ph.D degrees or published work of a high standard, can take up jobs in any University or Institute offering law courses to students. There is wide scope for visiting professors as private universities are coming up in large number and they prefer such persons because of their eminence and acumen.
Writing/Editing Law Books/Journals/Reports
If one is familiar with the complexities of law and the procedure and is in a position to understand the intricacies of case law and has a flair for writing he/she is fit to be an author of law books / legal commentaries and a proper person to bring out law reports, produce law journals, take up all other journalistic assignments and compile law lexicons.
Legal Outsourcing refers to the practice of a law firm obtaining legal services from an outside law firm. This practice is, however, known as offshoring when the outsourced entity is based in another country. According to a report, India has huge potential in legal outsourcing, with the number of jobs in the field increasing to 79,000 by 2015, a study has said. The field of legal outsourcing was largely untapped.At present the number of jobs in legal outsourcing in India stood less than 12,000.The most important challenges to legal outsourcing included concerns about data security, conflict of interest rules, and the need for Indian lawyers to pass US bar examinations.
As regards remuneration, it depends upon the field a law graduate chooses.If one gets a job in a Govt.department, or in public sector or in a university or in any other organization where govt. rules are applicable he/she will be entitled to get emoluments as per pay scales prescribed by the Government from time to time. After acceptance of recommendations of 6th Pay Commission, Govt. servants are getting handsome salary, say between Rs. 20,000 and one lakh and above depending on the designation and nature of job. Now multinational companies and law firms have also started campus selections and have been offering annual packages between three and four lakhs as per the standing of the company. However, those who start practice of their own have to struggle in the early stage but their constant efforts may help them in reaching any heights and the sky is the limit. Besides , law reporters, legal journalists, authors, writers and editors associated with reputed publications as also free-lancers have good earning.
One can either pursue a three-year law course (LLB) after graduation in any discipline or a five-year course after twelfth standard examinations, leading to a B.A.;LLB (Hons) degree . Admission to LLB is generally based on percentage of marks scored at graduation level. However, some Universities/ Institutions like National Law Schools conduct entrance tests, too. The B.A. LL.B programme usually covers practical training including court attendance, participation in mock court proceedings, seminars, symposiums, conferences on legal subjects / hands on training at legal aid centres and research projects. In addition to LLB degree, many universities and institutes also offer other diploma courses in several disciplines of law. P.G. Programme in law (LL.M) is of 2 years duration & eligibility is LLB degree. After completing LL.M Course, one can join Ph.D. LL.D degrees are also conferred on eminent scholars.
Fields of Specialisation
Civil/Criminal Law Constitutional Law Administrative Law Human Rights Law Family Law Taxation Corporate Law Business Law International Law Labour Law Real Estate Law Intellectual property /Patent Law
These directives provide the ideals which the Union and the State governments must keep in mind while formulating a policy or passing a law. The DPSPs constitute a comprehensive social and economic objective for a modern democratic state.
While fundamental rights provide the political pillar of Indian democracy, its social and economic pillars are provided by DPSPs.
Non Justiciable in nature –
FRs are Justiciable rights but DPSPs are non-justiciable rights.
Although DPSPs were no less important than fundamental rights yet they entailed financial back-up to implement them.
Since the Indian state had and still has limited economic capacity, making DPSPs justiciable would have put the state in a tight situation. This fact explains why DPSPs were deliberately made non-justiciable.
Despite being non-justiciable importance of DPSPs has been stated in Art. 37 which declares that although the DPSPs are non-justiciable, they should be considered fundamental in the governance of the country.
What are the different categories of DPSPs?
Adequate means of livelihood for all citizens
Fair distribution of wealth and material resources among all classes and to prevent concentration of wealth in a few hands
Equal pay for equal work for men as well as women; and
To secure just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.
To organize village Panchayats and to endowing them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government;
To promote cottage industries on individual or co-operative basis in rural areas;
The safeguard and promote the educational and economic interests or the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes;
To bring about the prohibition and consumption of intoxicating liquor; and
To organize agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and in particular prohibit slaughter of cows.
To secure uniform and liberal code of law for all citizens of India;
To separate the judiciary from the executive;
to raise the standard of nutrition and standard of living of the people;
To protect monuments of historical and national interest;
Equal justice and free legal aid to economically backward classes;
participation of workers in management of organizations engaged in any industry; and
Promotion and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life.
Provisions relating to be International Peace and Security:
To promote international peace and security;
To maintain just and honorable relations between nations
To foster respect for international law and treaty obligations;
To encourage settlement of disputes by arbitration.
Article Wise Explanation of DPSPS
Art. 36: This defines the term state in the same way as Art.12
Art.37: This declares the importance of DPSPs. It states that though DPSPs are not justiciable yet they shall be considered fundamental in the governance of the country and it shall be the duty of the state to include these directives in their policies.
Art. 38: This directs the state to create a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people. This social order must provide social, economic and political justice. Under 44th Amendment, clause (2) has been added to Art.38 which directs the state to minimize inequalities in income, to eliminate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities.
Art. 39: This is a very important article containing a number of directives which go a long way to establish what is known as welfare state in India. It directs the states to secure the following:- – Adequate means of livelihood for citizens both men and women. – Control and ownership of the material resources of the community to be distributed in such a manner that it serves the common good. – The operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment. – Equal pay for equal work for both men and women. – Health and strength of workers, men & women and children are not abused and the citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter Avocations unsuited to their age or strength. – Children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and their childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and moral and material abandonment (added by 42nd Amendment, 1976). – Thus, Art. 39 is very wide in its scope. It requires the state to ensure adequate means of livelihood, fair distribution of wealth, equal pay for equal work and protection of children and labour. Specially Art. 39 (b & c) lay the foundations of a welfare state.
Art. 39-A: Added to the Constitution by 42nd Amendment, 1976, this article requires the state to provide for equal justice and free legal aid. In pursuance of this article, Parliament has passed the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987.
Art. 40: This directs the state to organize village panchayats and confer adequate powers to them so that they can function as units of self-government. Accordingly, Parliament has passed 73rd Amendment, 1992 which has introduced panchayats in part IX in the Constitution.
Art. 41: Under this Article the state is directed to provide right to work, to education and to public assistance subject to its economic capacity.
Art. 42: Under this article, the state shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. The state has enacted laws such as the industrial Disputes Act, Minimum Wages Act, Maternity Relief Act, etc., to implement this article.
Art. 43: This article directs the state to make efforts to secure living wages and organize cottage industries in rural areas.
Art. 43-A: Added by 42nd Amendment, 1976, this article calls for legislation by the state to ensure workers participation in the management of industries.
Art. 44: This article contains a very important directive, viz., implementation of a Uniform Civil Code for the citizens throughout India. The state is supposed to take steps to establish a Uniform Civil code for all the citizens irrespective of caste, creed or religion. Unfortunately, despite this provision in the Constitution, there has been no implementation of uniform civil code since the adoption of the Constitution. A uniform civil code implies that persons belonging to different religions and beliefs would be governed by same set of laws in matters of marriage, divorce, adoption, succession to property, etc
Art. 45: Provision for free and compulsory education for children till the age of 14 years. However, this article has been amended by 86th Amendment Act, 2002 which has inserted Art. 21A in the constitution making right to education a fundamental right for all children between 6-14 years of age. Now Art. 45 direct the state to make provisions for early childhood care and education for all children till the age of 6 years.
Art. 46: This article seeks to protect the educational and economic interests of SC/STs and other weaker sections. A number of educational facilities have been extended to SC/STs in pursuance of this article.
Art. 47: The state has been directed by this article to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. This also includes prohibition of liquor and intoxicating drugs.
Art. 48: Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. The state under this article has to organize agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines. This also includes prohibition of killing of cows, calves and other milch and draught cattle.
Art. 48A: Added by 42nd Amendment, 1976, this article enjoins on the state task of protecting and improving environment, forests and wild life. A number of acts relating to protecting the environment, forests and wild life have been enacted.
Art. 49: This article obligates the state to protect monuments and places of national importance.
Art. 50: Separation of judiciary from the executive in the public services of the state. This article provides that there should be a separate judicial service free from executive control in the states. This article has been implemented by amending the CrPC in 1973 under which the judicial magistrates are being appointed separately in the states and they are accountable to the High Courts and not to the state executive.
Art. 51: This article requires the state to promote international peace and security, maintain good relations between nations and respect international laws.
DPSPs at Work
A number of legislations have been enacted by both Central and State governments to implement various directive principles.
Art. 39(b) – Agriculture Land Ceiling Acts were passed. All these are relatable to
Art. 40 – Under 73rd and 74th Amendments, powers have been conferred on Zilla Parishads, Municipalities and Panchayats.
Art. 39 (b) and (c) – In 1971 fourteen banks were nationalized. During the seventies many industries were taken over by the government.
Art. 39 (d) – Legislation guaranteeing equal pay for equal work is relatable to.
Art. 43 – The 26th Amendment of the Constitution made in 1971 abolished the privy purses, which were granted to the Rulers of Indian States. Various Boards and Commissions have been established by the State. Some of them are Khaadi and Village industries Commission, All India Handicraft Board. All India Handloom Board, Silk Board and Coir Board.
Art. 48 – Many States have enacted laws to prohibit slaughter of cows and bullocks.
Arts. 41, 42, 43A – The numerous Acts pertaining to labour, e.g., Minimum Wages Act, Workmen Compensation Act, Maternity Benefit Act, Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, The Factories Act etc.
Art. 48A – The Water Pollution, Air Pollution, Environmental Pollution Acts, The Forest Act, and Wild Life Protection Act passed by the Parliament.
DPSPs in Other Parts of Indian Constitution (Not in Part IV)
The following Directives are also non-justiciable:
Art. 350 A: Enjoins every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at primary stage to children of linguistic minorities.
Art 351 A: Enjoins the Union to promote the spread of Hindi language so that if may serve as a medium of expression of all the elements of the composite culture of India.
Art 355 A: Claims of Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes shall be taken into consideration, consistently with the maintenance of efficiency of administration, in the making of appointments to services and posts in connection with affairs of Union or of a State. DPSP vs. Fundamental Rights
It should be remembered that the Preamble, the FRs and the DPSPs are all integral parts of the same constitutional edifice.
They are all equally important and have to be read with each other.
The emphasis in the entire scheme of the Constitution under the headings of the Preamble, the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles is on building an egalitarian society and on the concept of socio-economic justice.
The Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles together constituted the soul of the Constitution.