ACADEMIC HOUR
| Nurturing Your Dream CAREER IN LAWWHAT IS CLAT?BLOGS

Pre-Foundation Batch
for CLAT

For Class XI

Duration : 2 Yrs.

Send Your Query

Foundation Batch
for CLAT

FOR Class XII

Duration 1 Yr.

Send Your Query

Intermediate Batch
for CLAT

After Class XII

Duration 6 Months

Send Your Query

CLAT 2020


Batch time:

4PM to 6PM (MWF)



Register Now



Or


Call: 9650154996



Online Test Capsule for CLAT

Mock Test Packages

  • Package I

    Pack of 5 Mock Test

    Price : INR 3500/-

    Buy Test Now


  • Package II

    Pack of 5 Mock Test with Topic Test

    Price : INR 5500/-

    Buy Test Now

Mock Test DU LLB Entrance



Free mock Test

CLAT, DU LLB, Current Affairs etc.

Registration Open

Register Now

Study Materials DU LLB Entrance

  • Class notes + Books
  • Current Affairs Digest
  • Online topic test + Mock Test
  • Online Ranking Test

INR 7500/-

Buy Study Materials

Downloads

Download our ebooks, Current Affairs Digest, Notes PDFs, Practice set PDFs etc. for DU LLB entrance, CLAT and other Law entrance examinations.

Explore Downloads

FOR DU LLB ENTRANCE 2019

Crash Course

(Limited Seats)
DU LLB Entrance 2019

Batch Starts : 2 PM on & 24 May

  ENROLL NOW

Online Mock Test

FOR
DU LLB Entrance Test 2019

10 Online Test (Volume-1)

Fee: Rs. 1500/-   |   Register Now

Online Classes

with Mock Test for
DU LLb Entrance Coaching

Class Started, Fee Rs. 4900/-

Registration will start soon!JOIN NOW

Academic Hour Blogs & Articles

Practice Set 1 - Idioms and Phrases

Posted ON: 09 JUN 2019


Directions (1-15): In each of the questions, four alternatives are given for the Phrase. Choose the alternative which best expresses the meaning of the Phrase and click the button corresponding to it.

Q1. Fend off

(a) Accomplish

(b) Prevent

(c) Anticipate

(d) Get tough on

Q2. Carve out

(a) Create

(b) Overrule

(c) Assist

(d) Require

Q3. Choke off

(a) Terminate

(b) Overcome

(c) Confront

(d) Extend

Q4. Fall out

(a) Conclude

(b) Quarrel; argue

(c) Intend

(d) Cancel

Q5. Dole out

(a) Allocate

(b) Be effective

(c) Turn up

(d) Mismanage

Q6. Block off

(a) Rise

(b) Barricade

(c) Soar

(d) Resort to

Q7. Take off

(a) Succeed

(b) Stand down

(c) Elucidate

(d) Attack

Q8. Ramp up

(a) Obstruct

(b) Increase or Cause to increase

(c) Demand

(d) To walk on a path

Q9. Lay in

(a) Suppress

(b) Proceed

(c) Preserve

(d) Ignore

Q10. Lay down

(a) Pass easily

(b) Stipulate

(c) Refresh

(d) Adapt

Q11. Cash in on

(a) Exploit

(b) Clarify

(c) Surge

(d) To count cash

Q12. Do in

(a) Abolish

(b) Kill

(c) To laugh a lot

(d) Decrease

Q13. Sleep through

(a) Not wake up

(b) Think about something

(c) Criticize heavily

(d) To get ill

Q14. Sneak out

(a) Depart furtively

(b) Entangle

(c) Weaken

(d) Resolve a problem

Q15. Spring on

(a) Pay back a debt

(b) Accumulate

(c) Surprise someone

(d) Make something neat and tidy

1. Ans.(b), 2. Ans.(a), 3. Ans.(a), 4. Ans.(b), 5. Ans.(a), 6. Ans.(b), 7. Ans.(a), 8. Ans.(b), 9. Ans.(c), 10. Ans.(b), 11. Ans.(a), 12. Ans.(b), 13. Ans.(a), 14. Ans.(a), 15. Ans.(c)



read full post...

Discussing PRONOUN : Important for DU LLB and CLAT

Posted ON: 09 JUN 2019


PRONOUN (RULES)

1. Since a personal pronoun works in place of a noun, the number, gender and person of the pronoun must be according to the noun only.
Ex.- Ram has lost his books. (Not their)
She loves his husband. Incorrect)
She loves her husband. (Correct)

2. When two or more singular nouns are joined by ‘AND’ the Pronoun for them always in the plural number.
Ex.- Mohan and Sohan have lost his books. (Incorrect)
Mohan and Sohan have lost their books. (Correct)

3. When two or more singular nouns joined by ‘AND’ are preceded by ‘EACH’ and ‘EVERY’ the pronoun must be singular.
Ex.- Every student and every teacher took his or her seat.
Each of Ram and Shyam has done his work.
Each man and each boy in the party has got his share.

4. When a singular nouns and a plural noun are combined by ‘OR’, ‘EITHER’ OR ‘NEITHER’ NOR the singular noun usually comes first in the sentence and the pronoun must be in the plural number.
Ex.- Either the manager or his subordinates failed in their duty in sending the official message.

5. When two or more singular nouns are joined by Either OR, neither nor the pronouns is always in the singular
Ex.- Ram or Mohan should invest his money in some business.
Neither Ram nor Shyam confessed his guilt
Either Sita or Kamla forgot to take her prize.

6. Either or neither are always used in relation to two things or two persons for more than two ‘ANY’, or ‘NONE’ must be used.
Ex.- Either of the two girls can pay for it.
Neither of the two brothers has been selected.
Any one of the employees can claim it.
None of the students of this class has passed.

7. When in a sentence ‘one’ is used as the subject all the pronouns in the sentence must be changed into ‘one’ or one’s and not his, her or him.
Ex.-One should keep one’s promise.
One should do one’s duty.
One must finish one’s task in time.

8. When any pronoun functions as the complement of the verb ‘To be’, it is always in the nominative case.
Ex.- It is me who have to go. (Incorrect)
It is I who have to go. (Correct)
It is him who is to blame. (Incorrect)
It is he who is to blame. (Correct)
It was he who could solve the problem Easily.

9. Whenever any pronoun functions as an object to a verb or a preposition, it is in the objective case.
Ex.- It is for he to consider. (Incorrect)
It is for him to consider. (Correct)
Ask he to go. (Incorrect)
Ask him to go. (Correct)

10. When two singular nouns joined by AND denote the same person or thing the pronoun used for them must be singular in number. The article ‘THE’ is placed before the first Noun.
Ex.- The accounts officer and treasures should be careful in his work of keeping accounts.

11. When a personal pronoun is connected by a conjunction with some other word in the objective case, it must be in the objective or accusative case.
Ex.- These clothes are for you and me. (not I)

12. A pronoun should be used in the objective case in a sentence beginning with Let.
Ex.- Let him go to his office
Let her submit the records in time.

13. While confessing a fault (or expressing a negative idea) the sequence of the personal pronouns should be as follows:
I, you and he are in the wrong and will be punished. [First person first, second person next and third person last]

14. While expressing a positive idea or praise, the sequence of the personal pronouns should be as follows:
You, He and I will get an award for the good work we have done. [Second person (2), third person (3), and first person (1)]
You, he and I have finished the work.
Ram, I and you have finished our studies. (Incorrect)
You, Ram and I have finished our studies. (Correct)

15. After ‘BUT’, ‘EXCEPT’, ‘BETWEEN’ and ‘LET’ the pronoun is used in objective case where as after such as in’ the subjective case
Ex.- Everyone laughed but I. (Incorrect)
Everyone laughed but me. (Correct)
Now attended the meeting except he. (Incorrect)
Now attended the meeting except him. (Correct)
Let we laugh away our sorrows. (Incorrect)
Let us laugh away our sorrows. (Correct)
This is between you and I. (Incorrect)
This is between you and me. (Correct)
They do not have a lining far such a person as me. (Incorrect)
They do not have a liking for such a person as I. (Correct)

16. ‘Some’ is used in affirmative sentences to express quantity or degree. ‘Any’ is used in Negative or interrogative sentences.
Ex.- I shall buy some apples.
I shall not buy any apples.
Have you bought any apples?
I shall read any book. (Incorrect)
I shall read some book. (Correct)

17. Enjoy, apply, resign, acquit, drive, exert, avail, pride, absent, drink, oversleep, overreach, Revenge, present etc. when used as transitive verbs, always take a reflexive pronoun after them.
Ex.- He absented from the class. (Incorrect)
He absented himself from the class. (Corrected)
He presented himself before the manager.
He absented himself from the office today.

18. When a pronoun stands for a collective noun, it must be in the singular number and in the neuter gender if the collective noun is viewed as a whole-
Ex.- The Jury gave its verdict.
The Jury were divided in their opinions.

19. (a) Each other is used about two persons.
Ex.- The two brothers disliked each other.
Romeo and Juliet loved each other.
The two children quarreled with each other.
(b) One another is used about more than two-
Ex.- Good boys do not quarrel with one another.
All the students of the class are friendly, they like one another.

20. The pronouns who, whom, whose are generally used for persons Who – Nominative case Whom – Objective case Whose – Possessive case.
Ex.- Shikha is the student who got an award.
They are the thieves whom the police caught.
This is the student whose certificates are lost.

21. Use of ‘WHICH’
(a) For infants, small animals and objects.
Ex.- This is the baby which was lost in the theatre.
This is the dog which my friend bought from the U.S.
(b) When selection is expressed.
Ex.- Which of these television sets do you want to purchase?
(c) To refer to a sentence
Ex.- He was said to be drunk, which was not true.

22. Uses of ‘THAT’
(a) For persons, lifeless things and small animals in the singular or in the plural number.
Ex.- This is the girl that failed in the exam.
This is the Radio that I bought Yesterday.
(b) As a substitute for a singular noun already mentioned.
Ex.- The weather of Hyderabad is for better than Chennai. (Wrong)
The weather of Hyderabad is far better than that of Chennai. (Right)



read full post...

Know the Noun : Important for DU LLb Entrance

Posted ON: 08 JUN 2019


NOUN
Kinds of Noun:
1. Proper Noun: a proper noun is the name of some particular person or place.
Ex- Ram , Shyam, Delhi.
 
2. Common Noun: A Common noun is a name given in common to every person or thing of the same kind or class.
Ex- boy, girl, teacher etc.
 
3. Collective noun: A collective noun is the name of a group of persons or things.
Ex- army, committee, crowd etc.
 
4.Abstract Noun: a noun denoting an idea, quality, or state rather than a concrete object.
Ex- strength, innocence, fear, judgment. Etc.
 
5. Material Noun: Material noun is the name given to the material, substance or things made up of The alloy.
Ex- cotton, gold, silver etc.
 
NOUN: Gender
1. Masculine Gender
A noun that denotes male animal is said to be of the Masculine Gender.
Ex- Man, boy, Tiger, Sun etc.
 
2. Feminine Gender: A noun that denotes a female animal is said to be of the Feminine Gender.
Ex- woman, girl, nature, lioness etc.
 
3. Common Gender: A noun that denotes either a male or a female is said to be of the common gender.
Ex- Parent, child, student, cousin etc.
 
4.Neuter Gender: A noun that denotes a thing without life , neither male nor female , is said to be of the Neuter gender.
Ex- Book, Pen, room etc.
 
NOUN: NUMBER
1. Singular Noun:
A noun that denotes one person or thing , is said to be in the Singular Number.
Ex- pen, cow, boy etc.
 
2. Plural Noun: A noun that denotes more than one person or thing , is said to be in the plural Number.
Ex- Pens, Boys, Cows etc
 
NOUN: countable / uncountable 
Countable nouns are the names of objects, people etc that we can count.
Ex- book, apple, doctor, horse etc.
 
Uncountable nouns are the names of things which we can’t count.
They mainly denote substance and abstract things.
Ex- milk, oil, sugar, gold, honesty etc.
 
NOUN: CASES
The case of a noun tells us about the position of that noun or pronoun in a sentence.
In English, there are five cases.
 
Nominative case: a noun is said to be in the nominative case if it is the subject of a verb.
Ex- Ram is an intelligent boy.
 
Objective case: Nouns or Pronouns are said to be in objective case if they are the direct object of verbs or the objects of the preposition.
 
Dative case: A noun is said to be in Dative case if it is the indirect object of the verb.
Rohan brought me a flower. (‘Me’ is in dative case)
 
Possessive case: A noun is said to be in the possessive case if it denotes possession or ownership. 
Ex- This is your pencil. (‘your’ is in possessive case)
 
Vocative case : A noun or pronoun is said to be in vocative case if it is used to call ( or to get attention of a person or persons)
Ex- Mr. Mallya , people are waiting for you in the hall. (Mr. Mallya is in vocative case)
 
NOUN in Apposition
when one noun follows another to describe it, the noun which follows is said to be in apposition to the noun which comes before it.
Ex- Ram , our captain, made fifty runs.
Kabir , the great reformer, was a weaver.
 
RULES AND EXAMPLES
 

1. Some nouns always take a singular verb.
Scenery, advice, information, machinery, stationery, furniture, abuse, fuel, rice, gram, issue, bedding, repair, news, mischief, poetry, business, economics, physics, mathematics, classic, ethics, athletics, innings, gallows.
(A) The scenery of Kashmir are enchanting. (Correct use- is)
(A) He has given advices. (Correct use- advice)

2. Some nouns are singular in meaning, but they are used as plural nouns and always take a plural verb.
Cattle, gentry, vermin, peasantry, artillery, people, clergy, company, police.
(A) The cattle is grazing in the ground. (correct use- are)
(B)  Police has controlled the situation. ( correct use- have)

3. Some nouns are always used in a plural form and always take a plural verb.
Trousers, scissors, spectacles, stockings, shorts, measles, goods, alms, premises, thanks, tidings, annals, chattels, etc.
(A) Where is my trousers? (correct use- are)
(B) Where are my trousers? Correct
(A) Spectacles is a costly item. ( correct use- are)

4. There are some nouns that indicate length, measure, money, weight or number. When they are preceded by a numeral, they remain unchanged in form.
Foot, meter, pair, score, dozen, head, year, hundred, thousand, million.
(A) It is a five – years degree course. (correct use- year)
(A) I have seven dozens of shoes. (correct use- dozen)

5. Collective nouns such as jury, public, team, committee, government, audience, orchestra, company, etc. are used both as singular and Plural. It depends on the usage.
(A) The jury was divided in their opinion. (correct use- were)
(A) The team have not arrived  yet. (correct use- has)

6. Some nouns have one meaning in the singular and another in the plural:
a.Advice = counsel,
 advices = information
b.Air = atmosphere,
  airs = proud
c. Authority = command,
 authorities = persons in power
d. Good = wise ,
 goods = property
e. Iron = metal,
  irons = fetters, chains
f. Force = strength
forces = army
g. Content = satisfaction,
 contents = things contained
h. Respect = regards,
 respects = compliments
i. Work = job
works = compositions, factories,.

7. People are often confused or they commit mistakes in the use of certain nouns.
(A) Lecturership is wrong: lectureship is correct.
(B) Freeship is wrong; free – studentship is correct.
(C) Boarding is wrong; boarding house is correct.
(D) Family members is wrong; members of the family is correct.
(E) English teacher is wrong; the teacher of English is correct.
(F) Cousin – brother or sister is wrong; only cousin is correct.
 
(G) Wages means punishments when used in the singular.
Ex- The wages of sin is death.
(H) It also means charges for the labour when used in the plural sense.
Ex- The wages of daily workers have been raised.

8. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person, number and gender.
Ex- Every student must bring his luggage.
All students must do their home work.
Each of the boys must carry his own bag.

9. While using ‘everybody’ ‘everyone’, ‘anybody’, and ‘each’ the pronoun of the masculine or the feminine gender is used according to the context.
I shall be happy to help each of the boys in this practice.
 
But when the sex is not mentioned, we use the pronoun of the masculine gender.
Anyone can qualify this exam if he tries.
Each of the six boys in the class has finished their tasks. (Incorrect)
Each of the six boys in the class has finished his task. (Correct)

10. The pronoun ‘one’ must be followed by ‘one’s’.
One must finish his homework in time.  (Incorrect)
One must finish one’s homework in time.  (Correct)

11. Enjoy, apply, resign, acquit, drive, exert, avail, pride, absent, etc., when used as transitive verbs, always take a reflexive pronoun after them. When ‘self’ is added to ‘my’, ‘your’, ‘him’, ‘her’, and ‘it’, and ‘selves’ to our and them – they are known as reflexive pronouns.
He absented from the meeting.
He absented himself from the meeting.

12. ‘Who’ denotes the subject and ‘whom’ is used for the object?
who : It’s the subject of a verb—e.g., Who gave you that book?
It’s a predicate nominative (a noun in the predicate that renames or refers to the sentence’s subject)—e.g.,This is who I am.
 
Whom is an objective pronoun, which is a pronoun that receives the action of a verb. It also has two main uses:
It is the object of a verb—e.g., Whom should I call?
It is the object of a preposition—e.g., From whom did you get this information?

13. When two or more singular nouns are connected by ‘either or’; ‘neither nor’, ; and ‘or’, the pronoun used is singular.
Either Rohan or Sohan will give their bike. (Incorrect)
Either Rohan or sohan will give his book. (Correct)

14. When a singular and a plural noun are joined by ‘or’, ‘nor’, the pronoun must be plural.
Either the student or his teachers failed in his duty. (Incorrect)
Either the student or his teachers failed in their duty. (Correct)

15. ‘Whose’ is used for living persons and ‘which’ for lifeless objects.
Which novel did you select?
Whose photograph is lying there?

16. ‘Each other’ is used when there are two subjects or objects and ‘one another’ when there are more than two.
Ram and Sita loved each other.
Those five students, who are sitting there, love one another.

17. When a pronoun stands for a collective noun, it must be in the singular number and in the neuter gender if the collective noun is viewed as a whole.but  if it gives an idea of different entities , plural pronoun is used.
The jury gave ‘its’ verdict.
Here the ‘jury’ gives the idea of one whole.
 
If the collective noun conveys the idea of separate individuals comprising the whole, the pronoun standing for it must be plural.
The jury were divided in their opinions.
in this sentence ,  the ‘jury’ gives the idea of several individuals.

18. If pronouns of different persons are to be used together in a sentence, the serial order of persons should be as follows;
 second person(2) + third (3)+ first person(1) in  normal sentences. But  when mistake or fault is expressed in the sentence, the order should be; first person(1) + second person(2) + third person(3). RULE-231
You, he and I have finished the work. (Normal idea)
I, you and he are to blame. ( here Confession of guilt is expressed , it’s a negative idea, hence order is 123)
 
19. ‘Some’ is used in affirmative sentences to express quantity or degree. ‘Any’ is uses in negative or interrogative sentences.
I shall buy some apples.
I shall not buy any apples.
Have you bought any apples?
But ‘some’ may be correctly used in interrogative sentences which are, in fact, requests.
Will you please give me some water?
 
20. The use of ‘few’, ‘a few’’ and ‘the few’ should be used with care. They denote ‘number’.
‘Few’ means ‘not many’, ‘almost nothing’.  A ‘few’ is positive and means ‘some at least’. ‘The few’ means ‘whatever there is’.
A few men are free from fault. (Incorrect)
Few men are free from fault. (Correct)
(Here the sense is negative and thus ‘a few’ is wrong.)
 
Few teams will qualify for the world cup. (Incorrect)
A few boys will pass in the examination. (Correct)
 
Here the sense is positive and thus ‘few’ is incorrect.
I have already read a few books that are in the library. (Incorrect)
I have already read the few books that are in the library. (Correct)
Here the sense is ‘whatever there is’. ’everything that is in the library’

21. Use of ‘less’ and ‘fewer’
‘Less’ denote quantity and ‘fewer’ denote number.
No less than fifty students were selected. (Incorrect)
No fewer than fifty students were selected. (Correct)
There are no fewer than five liters of water in the bottle. (Incorrect)
There are no less than five liters of water in the bottle. (Correct)
 

22. Use of little, a little, the little
‘Little’ means ‘hardly any’
There is little hope of his recovery. (Incorrect)
There is a little hope of his recovery. (correct)
‘A little’ means ‘some’, though not much.
Little knowledge is a dangerous thing. (Incorrect)
A little knowledge is a dangerous thing. (Correct)
 
‘The little means ‘not much but all there is’.
 Little water that is in the bottle may be used for the child. (Incorrect)
The little water that is in the bottle may be used for the patient. (Correct)

23. Use of elder, older.
‘Elder’ is used for persons of same family.
‘Older’ refers to persons as well as things and is followed by ‘than’.
Rohan is elder than all other boys of this area. (Incorrect)
Rohan is older than all other boys of this area. (Correct)
 
Sabu is my older brother. (Incorrect)
Sabu is my elder brother. (Correct)

24. Normally ‘than’ is used in the comparative degree, but with words like superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior and prefer ‘to’ is used.
Sara is junior than Neeta.( Incorrect)
Sara is junior to Neeta. (Correct)
I prefer reading than walking. (Incorrect)
I prefer reading to walking. (Correct)
 
25. when a comparison is made by using a comparative followed by ‘than’, the word ‘other’ must  exclude the thing compared form the class of things with which it is compared.
He is better than any man. (Incorrect)
He is better  than any other man. (Correct)
‘Any man’ includes the man himself and thus the sentences will be awkward.

26. In some cases, the comparison is subtle and must be given proper attention.
Ex- The climate of Delhi is better than Mumbai. (Incorrect)
Here the comparison should be between the climate of Delhi and the climate of Mumbai.
The climate of Delhi is better than the climate of Mumbai. (Correct)
Or
The climate of Ranchi is better than that of Gaya. (Correct)
(Here, ‘That of’ means ‘the climate of’)
If the traits are in plural, it will be ‘those of’.
The products of Reliance are better than those of Suzuki.
The scenery of Kashmir is better than Shimla. (Incorrect)
The scenery of Kashmir is better than that of shimla. (Correct)

27. ‘many a’ is always followed by the singular verb.
Many a student were drowned in the river. (Incorrect)
Many a student was drowned in the river. (Correct)

28. If the subject is ‘the number of’ the singular verb is used. And when the expression (‘a +number+of) is used , plural verb is used.
The number of students are very small. Incorrect
The number of students is very small. Correct
A number of girls has passed in the examination. (Incorrect)
A number of girls have passed in the examination.( correct)
 
29. When ‘as well as’, ‘along with’, together with’, ‘no less than’, ‘in addition to’ and ‘not’ and ‘with’ join two subjects, the verb will be used according to the first subject.
Ram, as well as his five friends, are going.( Incorrect)
Ram, as well as his five friends, is going. (Correct)
The teacher, along with the students, were dancing.( Incorrect)
The teacher, along with the students, was going. Correct



read full post...

Citizenship

Posted ON: 09 JUN 2019


Citizenship : Part II : (Articles 5-11)

Part II of the Constitution of India (Articles 5-11) deals with the Citizenship of India. Article 5 speaks about citizenship of India at the commencement of the Constitution (Nov 26, 1949). Article 11 gave powers to the Parliament of India to regulate the right of citizenship by law. Thus Citizenship Act 1955 was enacted by the Parliament. It is an act to provide for the acquisition and termination of Indian citizenship, and the same acts speaks about citizenship of India after the commencement of the Constitution.

ARTICLE 5 : CITIZENSHIP AT THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION

At the commencement of this Constitution, every person who has his domicile in the territory of India and –
(a) who was born in the territory of India; or
(b) either of whose parents was born in the territory of India; or
(c) who has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India for not less than five years immediately preceding such commencement, shall be a citizen of India.

ARTICLE 6 : RIGHTS OF CITIZENSHIP OF CERTAIN PERSONS WHO HAVE MIGRATED TO INDIA FROM PAKISTAN

Notwithstanding anything in article 5, a person who has migrated to the territory of India from the territory now included in Pakistan shall be deemed to be a citizen of India at the commencement of this Constitution if –
(a) he or either of his parents or any of his grand-parents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted); and
(b)(i) in the case where such person has so migrated before the nineteenth day of July, 1948, he has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India since the date of his migration, or
(ii) in the case where such person has so migrated on or after the nineteenth day of July, 1948, he has been registered as a citizen of India by an officer appointed in that behalf by the Government of the Dominion of India on an application made by him therefor to such officer before the commencement of this Constitution in the form and manner prescribed by that Government:
Provided that no person shall be so registered unless he has been resident in the territory of India for at least six months immediately preceding the date of his application.

ARTICLE 7 : RIGHTS OF CITIZENSHIP OF CERTAIN MIGRANTS TO PAKISTAN

Notwithstanding anything in articles 5 and 6, a person who has after the first day of March, 1947, migrated from the territory of India to the territory now included in Pakistan shall not be deemed to be a citizen of India:
Provided that nothing in this article shall apply to a person who, after having so migrated to the territory now included in Pakistan, has returned to the territory of India under a permit for resettlement or permanent return issued by or under the authority of any law and every such person shall for the purposes of clause (b) of article 6 be deemed to have migrated to the territory of India after the nineteenth day of July, 1948.

ARTICLE 8 : RIGHTS OF CITIZENSHIP OF CERTAIN PERSONS OF INDIAN ORIGIN RESIDING OUTSIDE INDIA

Notwithstanding anything in article 5, any person who or either of whose parents or any of whose grand-parents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted), and who is ordinarily residing in any country outside India as so defined shall be deemed to be a citizen of India if he has been registered as a citizen of India by the diplomatic or consular representative of India in the country where he is for the time being residing on an application made by him therefor to such diplomatic or consular representative, whether before or after the commencement of this Constitution, in the form and manner prescribed by the Government of the Dominion of India or the Government of India.

ARTICLE 9 : PERSONS VOLUNTARILY ACQUIRING CITIZENSHIP OF A FOREIGN STATE NOT TO BE CITIZENS

No person shall be a citizen of India by virtue of article 5, or be deemed to be a citizen of India by virtue of article 6 or article 8, if he has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of any foreign State.

ARTICLE 10 : CONTINUANCE OF THE RIGHTS OF CITIZENSHIP

Every person who is or is deemed to be a citizen of India under any of the foregoing provisions of this Part shall, subject to the provisions of any law that may be made by Parliament, continue to be such citizen.

ARTICLE 11 : PARLIAMENT TO REGULATE THE RIGHT OF CITIZENSHIP BY LAW

Nothing in the foregoing provisions of this Part shall derogate from the power of Parliament to make any provision with respect to the acquisition and termination of citizenship and all other matters relating to citizenship.

Info-bits related to Citizenship of India

1.    The conferment of a person, as a citizen of India, is governed by Articles 5 to 11 (Part II) of Indian Constitution.

2.    The legislation related to this matter is the Citizenship Act 1955, which has been amended by the Citizenship (Amendment) Act 1986, the Citizenship (Amendment) Act 1992, the Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2003, and the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2005.

3.    Article 9 of Indian Constitution says that a person who voluntarily acquires citizenship of any other country is no longer an Indian citizen. Also, according to The Passports Act, a person has to surrender his Indian passport if he acquire citizenship of another country, it is a punishable offense under the act if he fails to surrender the passport.

4.    Indian nationality law largely follows the jus sanguinis (citizenship by right of blood) as opposed to the jus soli (citizenship by right of birth within the territory).

5.    The President of India is termed the first Citizen of India.

6.    Acquisition of Indian Citizenship as per Citizenship Act 1955: Indian Citizenship can be acquired under the following ways : (1) Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution of India (2) Citizenship by birth : NB – This provision has different clauses for different periods (3) Citizenship by descent (4) Citizenship by registration (5) Citizenship by naturalization.

7.    Persons domiciled in the territory of India as on 26 November 1949 automatically became Indian citizens by virtue of operation of the relevant provisions of the Indian Constitution coming into force. (Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution of India.)

8.    Any person born in India on or after 26 January 1950, but prior to the commencement of the 1986 Act on 1 July 1987, is a citizen of India by birth.  [Citizenship by birth]

9.    A person born in India on or after 1 July 1987 is a citizen of India if either parent was a citizen of India at the time of the birth. [Citizenship by birth]

10.  Those born in India on or after 3 December 2004 are considered citizens of India only if both of their parents are citizens of India or if one parent is a citizen of India and the other is not an illegal migrant at the time of their birth. [Citizenship by birth].

11.  Termination of Indian Citizenship as per Citizenship Act 1955: One can lose citizenship of India in three ways – Renunciation, Termination and Deprivation.

12.  Persons of Indian Origin (PIO) Card : A PIO card applicant has to be a person of Indian origin who is a citizen of any country, other than Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Afghanistan, China and Nepal; or a person who has held an Indian passport at any time or is the spouse of an Indian citizen or a person of Indian origin;

13.  Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) card : OCI Card is for foreign nationals who were eligible to become a citizen of India on 26.01.1950 or was a citizen of India on or after that date. Applications from citizens of Bangladesh and Pakistan are not allowed.

14.  Overseas Indian Card : A new Bill is pending in Parliament [The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill], which seeks to do away with the existing overseas citizen of India (OCI) card and the person of Indian origin (PIO) card, and replace them with a new overseas Indian card,

15.  While PIO card holders do not require a separate visa and can enter India with multiple entry facility for 15 years; the OCI card is a multiple entry, multi-purpose lifelong visa for visiting India. OCI card-holders have parity with non-resident Indians in respect of economic, financial and educational matters except in acquiring agricultural land.

16.  A PIO cardholder is required to register with local Police authorities for any stay exceeding 180 days in India on any single visit.

17.  OCI is not dual citizenship. There are no voting rights for an OCI card holder

18.  Citizenship (Amendment) Bill,2016

19.  With The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016, the government plans to change the definition of illegal migrants. The Bill, introduced in the Lok Sabha on July 15, 2016, seeks to amend the Citizenship Act, 1955 to provide citizenship to illegal migrants, from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan, who are of Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi or Christian extraction. However, the Act doesn’t have a provision for Muslim sects like Shias and Ahmediyas who also face persecution in Pakistan.

20.  The Bill also seeks to reduce the requirement of 11 years of continuous stay in the country to six years to obtain citizenship by naturalisation.



read full post...

Important Questions for DU LLB 2019 : Lok Sabha - 2

Posted ON: 24 MAY 2019


Important Questions from polity Based on Lok Sabha

  • The speaker of the Lok sabha is elected by
    • Ans. All members of Lok sabha
  • The “speaker’s vote” in the Lok sabha is called
    • Ans. Casting vote
  • Who is the Presiding office of the Lok sabha ?
    • Ans. Speaker & Deputy speaker
  • The chairman of which committee is generally from the opposition party
    • Ans. Public Accounts Committee
  • The public Accounts Committee submits its report to
    • Ans. The speaker of the Lok Sabha
  • Which committees exist only in the Lok Sabha not in Rajya Sabha
    • Ans.  a) Committee on Private Members Bill & resolution, b) Estimates Committees
  • Which committees is concerned with the regularity & economy of expenditure of Govt.
    • Ans. Public Accounts committees
  • Which committees is not created by the Speaker’s nomination of members
    • Ans. Committee on Public Undertaking
  • If  a member of parliament voluntarily acquires the citizenship of a foreign country …..
    • Ans. He will be disqualified from membership
  • When the annual Budget is not passed by the Lok Sabha
    • Ans. The prime minister submits the resignation of councils of Ministers
  • What is “Vote -on-account”
    • Ans. It only deals with the expenditure in Govt.’s budget
  • “Vote-on account” permits Union Govt. to —-
    • Ans. Withdraw money from Consolidate Fund of India for specific period
  • What is “Interim Budget”
    • Ans. It includes both expenditure & receipts
  • Who  are entitled to take part in the activities of Lok Sabha with out membership
    • Ans. a) The Comprotroler & auditor general of India, b) The attorney General of India, c) The solicitor General
  • No confidence Motion against the Union council of ministers can be initiated ……
    • Ans. In the Lok sabha only
  • At which stage general discussion on a bill takes places in the Lok sabha ?
    • Ans. During second reading
  • The chairman of Public Accounts Committee is appointed by
    • Ans. Speaker of Lok Sabha
  • Who presides over the joint sitting of the two houses ?
    • Ans. The speaker of the Lok sabha
  • Who calls the joint session of the two Houses of the parliament ?
    • Ans. The speaker of the Lok sabha
  • The speaker of the Lok sbha addresses his letter of resignation to the
    • Ans. Deputy speaker of the Lok sabha
  • Who presides over the Lok sabha when both the speaker’s & the deputy speaker’s offices fall vacant ?
    • Ans. The duties of the office of the speaker are performed by such member of the Lok Sabha as the president may appoint for the purpose . the person so appointed is known as the speaker preterm
  • Who is to certify that any bill is a money bill or not ?
    • Ans. Speaker of Lok sabha
  • Who has the final power to maintain order within the house of People ?
    • Ans. Speaker
  • After a  no confidence motion is admitted to the Lok sabha , who decides a date for the debate
    • Ans. Speaker of Lok sabha
  • Who forms the Advisory Committees of the Parliaments
    • Ans. Speaker of Lok sabha
  • The chairman of the following is designated as
    • Ans. Speaker
  • The function of the Pro-tem Speaker is to
    • Ans. Swearing Members
  • Who is the first speaker of Lok sabha
    • Ans. G V Mavlankar
  • Who was the first speaker to discard the official wig & presided over the House wearing the Gandhi Cap
    • Ans. G V Mavlankar
  • Longest serving speaker of lok sabha
    • Ans. Balram jakhar
  • Who is the first female speaker of Lok Sabha
    • Ans. Meira Kumar
  • Who was the first deputy speaker of Lok Sabha
    • Ans. M Ananthasayanam Ayyangar
  • Who is selected Anglo-Indian community in the Lok Sabha
    • Ans. President
  • The Lok sabha secretariat comes under the direct supervision of
    • Ans. Ministry  of Human affairs
  • The largest committee of Loksabha (Parliament) of India is
    • Ans. Estimate Committee
  • Which parliamentary Committees in India acts as “Watch dog” on departmental expenditure & irregularities ?
    • Ans. Public Account committee
  • When can the speaker exercise his right to vote in the house ?
    • Ans. Only in the event of equality of votes
  • The speaker may be removed …..
    • Ans. By a resolution of the house moved after 14 days clear notice & passed by majority of all the then members of the house
  • The speaker of the Lok sabha can be removed by
    • Ans. A resolution of the Lok Sabha passed by a majority of the members of the House
  • When a resolution for his removal is under consideration , the speaker……
    • Ans. Has a right to speak in the house even though he shall not preside
  • Who fixes the salaries & the allowances of the speaker of Lok Sabha
    • Ans. Parliament

  • Who presides over the Lok Sabha if neither the speaker nor the deputy Speaker is available ?
    • Ans. The senior most member of the Lok sabha
  • When the Lok sabha is dissolved , the speaker continues in office till a new…….
    • Ans. Speaker is elected when the new House meets
  • Who, according to the Anti -defection Act, is the final authority to decide whether a member of Lok Sabha has incurred disqualification due to defection ?
    • Ans. Speaker
  • Who presides over the Lok Sabha when the speaker is absent from the sitting of the house ?
    • Ans. Deputy speaker
  • Bills of which categories can be initiated only in Lok sabha
    • Ans. Money Bill
  • The member of the Lok sabha is elected by the
    • Ans. People
  • No Govt. Expenditure can be incurred in India except with the sanction of
    • Ans. The parliament
  • Which is properly elected house of the Indian parliament
    • Ans. Lok sabha
  • Union Budget is always presented first in
    • Ans. Lok sabha
  • Finance Bill of Indian Govt. is presened in ?
    • Ans. Lok sabha (Lower House)
  • The Union Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to
    • Ans. Lok Sabha
  • Which house is better placed with regard to control over the executive ?
    • Ans. Lok Sabha
  • Why is the Lok sabha called the popular chamber ?
    • Ans. The lok sabah is composed of representive of the people chosen by direct election on the basis of adult suffrage.That is why it is called the popular chamber


read full post...

Question Tag - Important for DU LLB Entrance

Posted ON: 08 MAY 2019


Question Tag

Tag Question is a form of short question added after a sentence. Tag question is used to get the confirmation from the listeners. 

Auxiliary verb + not (if sentence is affirmative) + Pronoun of Subject?

 

Instructions:

1. We use Auxiliary Verbs to make a sentence Negative of Interrogative. So, To make a tag question we use Auxiliary Verbs . They are different in different tenses.

Tense - Auxiliary Verbs

Present Indefinite - Do/Does / don’t  /doesn’t

Past Indefinite - Did / didn’t

Future Indefinite - Shall/ Will / shan’t / won’t

Present Continuous - Am/ Is/ Are / aren’t  / isn’t

Past Continuous - Was/ Were / wasn’t  / weren’t

Future Continuous - Shall /  Will shan’t / won’t

Present Perfect - Have/ Has / haven’t  / hasn’t

Present Perfect - Had / hadn’t

Future Perfect - Shall / Will / shan’t  / won’t

2. We also use Modal Verbs as Auxiliary verbs. Some Modal Verbs are can, could, will, would, shall, should, need to, ought to, dare to,  etc.

3. Always a question is formed with the help of Auxiliary Verb. If the sentence is affirmative, Tag question is negative.

- I know nothing about this, do I?  (Present tense and negative so tag question is affirmative)

- You studied hard, didn’t you? (Past tense and affirmative, so tag question is negative)

4. We say ‘let us’ to express proposal but say let me, let him, let them to express request.

- Let us /Let’s do the work, shall we?  [Proposal]

- but, Let me /Let him /Let them do the work, will you? [Request]

5. When main verb is Have, Has, Need, you should use do/does as auxiliary verb in present tense and did in Past Tense.

- He has some books, doesn’t he?    (Has is the main verb in present tense) 

but, He has finished the task, hasn’t he?  (Has is the auxiliary verb in present perfect tense)

- He had some books, didn’t he?   (Had is the main verb in past tense)

but, He had finished the task, hadn’t he?  (Had is the auxiliary verb in past perfect tense)

- I need a pencil to write with, don’t I? (Need is the main verb)

- I need to wait for an hour, needn’t you? (Need is auxiliary verb)

6. If subject is plural, the pronoun of subject is always ‘They’

- The books are very interesting, aren’t  they?

7. When Subject is nobody, everybody, none, everyone, the pronoun can be ‘Anybody’ or  ‘They’

- Nobody loves a liar, do they?/ does anybody?

8. The words ‘seldom, rare, hardly, few, little, scarcely, no sooner are negative.  Then question tag should be affirmative.

There is no alternative to practice. So practice the following sentences yourselves. Please don’t forget to write a comment here. You may ask any question you want to know.

Tag question exercise

1.    Nothing is impossible.   ——–?

2.    I think everybody knows it. ——–?

3.    The idle always lag behind.  ——–?

4.    Let’s motivate them. ——–?

5.    Motivation seldom goes in vain. ——–?

6.    Congratulations, you have made an excellent result. . ——–?

7.    Thanks. But my parents and teachers also deserve the credit. ----?

8.    We ought to remain grateful them. ——–?

9.    You studied hard. ——–?

10.   It is our duty to study in a disciplined way. ——–?

11. Let us start our journey.  ——–?

12.  They used to play football in the afternoon. ——–?

13. Nobody should laugh at the blind.  ——–?

14. There is nothing for her to eat. ——–?

15.  Mina had better to stay at home. ——–?

16.  You aren’t doing the work. ——–?

17.  Somebody left there house yesterday. ——–?

18. What a beautiful day it is. ——–?

19.  A cat catches a mouse. ——–?

20. Bangladesh is our motherland. ——–?

21.  Something is burning. ——–?

22.  Rahim as well as his friends was present. ——–?

23.  He did it. ——–?

24.  I know nothing about him. ——–?

25.  Let’s arrange a class party. ——–?

26. The moon shines at night. ——–?

27.  Everybody loves flower. ——–?

28.  Nothing can satisfy him. ——–?

29.  He has few reasons for waiting. ——–?

30.  That was my pen. ——–?

31.  Nobody believes a liar. ——–?

32.  We have to study English. ——–?

33.  Let her solve the matter. ——–?

34. You had better leave now. ——–?

35.  We ought to love our motherland. ——–?

36.  Look at this paper. ——–?

37.  Let’s phone. ——–?

38.  It is a beautiful afternoon. ——–?

39.  Let’s go out for a walk. ——–?

40.  The police arrested him. ——–?

41.   Both are responsible. ——–?

42.  Let’s take an oath today. ——–?

43.  This is the right way to do it.——–?

44.  Life is very busy in the big cities. ——–?

45. We needed a change in thoughts. ——–?

46.  Let us make them realize it. ——–?

47. Man is a social being. ——–?

48.  He cannot live alone. ——–?

49.  It is man who pollutes his environment. ——–?

50.  Every mother loves her child. ——–?

51.  Don’t forget me.——–?

52. My father and I are happy. ——–?

53.  Men should not tell a lie.——–?

54.   We live in Bangladesh. ——–?

55.   The weather was fine yesterday. ——–?

Answer of Tag questions

 01. Nothing is impossible, is it?

02. I think everybody knows it, don’t they?

03. The idle always lag behind, don’t they?

04. Let’s motivate them, shall we?

05. Motivation seldom goes in vain, does it?

06. Congratulations, you have made an excellent result, haven’t you?

07. Thanks. But my parents and teachers also deserve the credit, don’t they?

08. We ought to remain grateful them, oughtn’t we?

09. You too studied hard, didn’t you?

10. It is our duty to study in a disciplined way, isn’t it?

11. Let us start our journey, shall we?

12. They used to play football in the afternoon, didn’t they?

13. Nobody should laugh at the blind.  Should they?

14. There is nothing for her to eat, is there?

15. Mina had better to stay at home, hadn’t she?

16. You aren’t doing the work, are you?

17. Somebody left their house yesterday, didn’t they?

18. What a beautiful day it is, isn’t it?

19. A cat catches a mouse, doesn’t it?

20. Bangladesh is our motherland, isn’t she?

21. Something is burning, aren’t they?

22. Rahim as well as his friends was present, wasn’t he?

23. He did it, didn’t he?

24. I know nothing about him, do I?

25. Let’s arrange a class party, shall we?

26. The moon shines at night, isn’t it?

27. Everybody loves flower, don’t they?

28. Nothing can satisfy him, can it?

29. He has few reasons for waiting, hasn’t he?

30. That was my pen, wasn’t it/ that?

31. Nobody believes a liar, do they?

32. We have to study English, haven’t we?

33. Let her solve the matter, will you?

34. You had better leave now, hadn’t you?

35. We ought to love our motherland, oughtn’t we?

36. Look at this paper, will you?

37. Let’s phone, shall we?

38. It is a beautiful afternoon, isn’t it?

39. Let’s go out for a walk, shall we?

40. The police arrested him, didn’t they?

41. Both are responsible, aren’t they?

42. Let’s take an oath today, shall we?

43. This is the right way to do it, isn’t this?

44. Life is very busy in the big cities, isn’t it?

45. We needed a change in thoughts, didn’t we?

46. Let us make them realize it, shall we?

47. Man is a social being, isn’t he?

48. He cannot live alone, can he?

49. It is man, who pollutes his environment, isn’t it?

50. Every mother loves her child, don’t they?

51. Don’t forget me, will you?

52. My father and I are happy, aren’t we?

53. Men should not tell a lie, should they?

54. We live in Bangladesh, don’t we?

55. The weather was fine yesterday, wasn’t it?



read full post...

clat online live classes

Success in 2018


  • Umesh

  • Vijay

  • Anish

  • Saiba

  • Aditi

  • Ankush

  • Dheeraj

  • Vaishali

  • Gaurav

  • Deepanshu

  • Umesh

  • Vishal

  • Aakash

  • Aakash

  • Aliza

  • Divya

  • Pankaj

  • Rashmi

  • Sachin

  • Subhi